How to calculate power plant emissions – solution to problem of a reader

How to calculate power plant emissions – solution to problem of reader

Hi,

Please find on the next page a snippet of my spreadsheet showing the solution.  The model was calibrated to the above municipal solid fuel analysis at 80% excess air firing for combustion of municipal solid waste to meet the given SO2 emission of 15.75 mg/Nm3.

Assuming 26% thermal efficiency and given firing rate of 185,000 metric tons per year of 7018 hours (around 80% capacity factor), your plant must be generating over 52.41 MW of power with 9% plant own use (parasitic load assumed).

The fuel should have a sulfur analysis of 0.57% Sulfur (dry basis) in order to give such emission.

At 31.30% moisture in the wet fuel, this translates to 0.39% Sulfur (wet basis).

Once the sulfur in the wet fuel is known, the problem is solved:

kg SO2 per metric ton fuel (wet) = (0.39 / 100) x (mw of SO2 / mw of S) x (1000 kg / metric ton)

= (0.39 / 100) x (64.0648 / 32.0660) x (1000) = 7.806 kg SO2 per metric ton (tonne) of wet fuel More »

Philippines Imposes Price Ceiling on Petroleum Products – supply shortage feared

October 28th, 2009 3 Comments   Posted in oil pump prices

Philippines Imposes Price Ceiling on Petroleum Products

President Arroyo issued Executive Order 839 that directed oil companies to revert oil pump prices of gasoline, diesel, kerosene and LPG to the Oct 15, 2009 prevailing retail prices in the calamity areas recently devastated with massive flooding, land slides, infrastructure damage to dikes, bridges, roads, houses, commercial establishments, industries and numerous loss of life.

The action was in response to the latest round of oil pump price increase announced by the 3 oil majors and minor players due to changes in MOPS of petroleum products for the periods Oct 5-9 and Oct 12-16. More »

Rule of thumb for calculating oil price adjustments due to movement of exchange rate and price of oil

October 21st, 2009 No Comments   Posted in oil pump prices

Rule of thumb for calculating oil price adjustments due to movement of exchange rate and price of oil

Your favorite energy technology and oil pricing expert again took this initiative of estimating the rule of thumb for most of the petroleum products.

These are based on MOPS for products and in the event there are no latest MOPS for a particular product, I used the historical ratio of MOPS to DUBAI in order to forecast MOPS given latest information on DUBAI.  This ratio basically tells us the incremental cost to refine the DUBAI crude to finished products. More »

How to predict oil price adjustments from changes in MOPS and FOREX – a simplified formula

How to predict oil price adjustments from changes in MOPS and FOREX – a simplified formula

Yes, your favorite energy technology and pricing expert has simplified the calculation of oil price adjustments given changes in product MOPS and FOREX since not all the minor cost items change.

The duty paid landed cost inclusive of 12% VAT on imported oil, in $/bbl is:

DPLC $/bbl = (CIF + WHARFAGE + BOE FEE + OCEAN LOSS + DOC STAMPS + DEMURRAGE + CUSTOMS DUTY + SPECIFIC TAX) x 1.12

where FOB = MOPS + PREMIUM (where PREMIUM is usually zero) More »

How to predict early safe release of dam water – 2nd comment from Philippine Star Federico Pascual

October 18th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in environmental impacts

FYI… Postscript for Thursday, Oct. 18,

quotes Mr. M. Ocampo.

POSTSCRIPT/ PhilSTAR/ Oct. 15, 2009/ Thursday

By Federico D. Pascual Jr.

* * *

UNSTEADY HAND: In the Senate, one listens in horror to the testimony of dam managers and executives of the National Power Corp., upon whose judgment rests the crucial decision of when and how to release impounded water from the dams.

Their unsteady hand is poised on the lever that could unleash death and destruction on communities downstream — as had happened in the recent flooding in Central and Northern Luzon that killed hundreds and destroyed properties worth billions of pesos.

Their testimony and buck-passing gave the impression they think that dam water is released only when the reservoir is dangerously full, and that that is done mainly to save the structure from collapse. More »

How to improve the economy thru integrated energy, economic and social planning

October 18th, 2009 2 Comments   Posted in energy efficiency

Energy Efficiency Market Transformation Concept Paper

By: Marcial T. Ocampo

Energy Consultant

RATIONALE

The surging oil & gas energy prices in the world and domestic market, mainly driven by steep increase in the market price of the widely traded Dubai crude has resulted in serious consequences for the end consumer and the country – rising domestic fuel and electricity prices, surging food prices, higher transport fares and consequently higher inflation, depreciating peso, lower economic growth rate and greater risk of higher budget deficit. More »

How to calculate impact of oil price on the economy – energy tax, deficit, exchange rate, inflation

October 18th, 2009 11 Comments   Posted in Demand & Pricing, Energy Supply

Philippine Energy Pricing and Impact Analysis

By: Marcial T. Ocampo

Energy & Project Development Consultant

RATIONALE

The surging oil & gas energy prices in the world and domestic market, mainly driven by steep increase in the market price of the widely traded Dubai crude has resulted in serious consequences for the end consumer and the country – rising domestic fuel and electricity prices, surging food prices, higher transport fares and consequently higher inflation, depreciating peso, lower economic growth rate and greater risk of higher budget deficit. More »

How to Plan Ahead for a Dam Failure – US FEMA guidelines

October 17th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in environmental impacts

How to Plan Ahead for a Dam Failure – US FEMA guidelines

[This article is being provided by Marcial Ocampo as a guide to NAPOCOR, PAGASA, NDCC, LGUs and dam operators for an effective response in the event that a catastrophic failure of a dam is imminent or has occurred.  Currently, an inter-agency committee has been constituted to review and submit by November 30, 2009 a revised DAM RELEASE PROTOCOL to avoid the very recent catastrophic release of excess water by five dams at the height of two super typhoons that inundated and damaged large areas of central and northern Luzon, Philippines. The links has been obtained thru Internet search using the search engine of MSN.  Cheers.  Marcial]

The following article from US FEMA provides the important links for all topics related to planning ahead for a dam failure.  It is the author’s view that all concerned shall be well informed in advance on a DAM OPERATION PROTOCOL in order to avoid dam failure as a result of excessive rainfall that could not anymore be safely stored by a dam.

As a preparatory document, the reader is advised to read a glossary or list of definitions related to dam operations in order to fully appreciate the contents of the links shown below.  The two links are as follow: More »

US Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety: Glossary of Terms (FEMA 148)

October 17th, 2009 8 Comments   Posted in environmental impacts

US Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety: Glossary of Terms (FEMA 148)

[This US Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety is being presented by Marcial T. Ocampo, former Executive Director of PCIERD-DOST to the inter-agency technical committee tasked to review the DAM OPERATION PROTOCOL to be followed by NAPOCOR, PAGASA and other dam operators in the Philippines with the end in view of avoiding the tragic mistake of releasing dam water at the height of the typhoon in order to prevent the dam from collapsing.  The general idea is to drain the dam in advance of approaching typhoon in order to have sufficient storage capacity to store the anticipated rainfall based on weather satellite or “Doppler Radar” measurements as they may become available in the future. This document was obtained by Marcial Ocampo using the internet search engine of MSN.]

The complete link to this document is shown below:

http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/damfailure/fema148.shtm More »

Urgent request for assistance and support

October 16th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in energy technology expert

Urgent request for assistance and support

On behalf of my countrymen from the Philippines, I would like to send this urgent appeal for support and assistance to the numerous victims of flood brought about by the incessant rains of the two super typhoons.  They need financial support, food, clothing, shelter and infrastructure reconstruction as earthen dikes, levees, bridges, roads, dwellings, agricultural crops and lands have been severely damaged or destroyed.  Please contact the author below on how to course your donation and support.

Likewise, the author of this blog is requesting for your continued assistance and support in order to keep the energy technology blog featuring the various power generation technologies as to its principle, overnight capital cost, commercial capacity range, availability, reliability, load factor, capacity factor, efficiency or plant heat rate, fuel cost, construction lead time, economic life, etc. in order to calculate its levelized cost of energy with the end objective of comparing technologies in order to decide which one to select as to the most cost effective solution to the energy supply problem. More »

Levelized Cost of Energy – sample calculation results

October 16th, 2009 7 Comments   Posted in levelized cost of energy

Levelized Cost of Energy – sample calculation results

Please refer to the first article for the calculation formulas (US NREL and RP MTO) and the second article for the sample input data used in the calculation of levelized cost of energy and electricity (rated capacity, overnight cost, fixed and variable O&M cost, fuel cost, efficiency, capacity factor, station use, taxes, economic life, etc.).

Levelized Cost by Technology Group (using RP MTO Formula)

The levelized cost for each technology of given rated capacity is given for the RP MTO formula (with taxes and depreciation).

Please revisit this link for the US NREL and RP MTO formulas for levelized cost of energy:

http://energytechnologyexpert.com/cost-of-power-generation/how-to-calculate-the-levelized-cost-of-power-or-energy/ More »

How to predict early safe release of dam water – reaction from Philippine Star Columnist Federico Pascual

October 15th, 2009 6 Comments   Posted in environmental impacts

FYI… Postscript for Thursday, Oct. 15, quotes Mr. M. Ocampo.

POSTSCRIPT/ PhilSTAR/ Oct. 15, 2009/ Thursday

By Federico D. Pascual Jr.

* * *

DAM FIASCO: Some managers of dams in Luzon may have thought that impounded water should be released only when it is about to reach a critical level, or that point when it will overflow by itself or might damage the dam if the pressure is not relieved soon enough.

Some experts think, however, that it is better to release gradually small volumes of water BEFORE the spilling point is reached instead of letting loose all the excess water in one deluge when the dam is full.

A post-mortem of water-release data indicates that the fast and massive flooding that hit communities downstream could have resulted from misconceptions of some dam managers.

It has been days that energy technologist Marcial Ocampo, former executive director of the PCIERD-DOST, called our attention to this, but we ignored his thesis because it was loaded with formulas and equations that we laymen cannot follow. More »

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION : IT PROVOKED HIGHER PRICES – by Mar Tecson

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION:

IT PROVOKED HIGHER PRICES

[Editor’s Note:  This is the first article on this series that is meant to elicit discussion among our readers on how best we could address the issue of oil pricing under a deregulated environment.  Are we better off today with a deregulated oil industry or should we revert back to a regulated oil industry?   Has deregulation brought the country benefits or allowed the oil companies to increase their prices beyond what is reasonable?  Please feel free to comment and share your views so we could draw up a consensus on a better approach to oil industry regulation.  Cheers.  Marcial] More »

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s Comment #5

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s Comment #5

[This is Mar Tecson’s comment to Marcial Ocampo’s response/comment #4.  The reader may add further his views to widen our pool of ideas.  Cheers.  Marcial]

From: Marcelo Tecson <martecson@yahoo.com>

Subject: IT DEPENDS ON WHOSE VIEWPOINT… Re: LET US USE BOTH PROFITABLITY MEASUREMENTS… Re: PER LITER MARGIN is Gateway to PERCENT RETURN on CAPITAL… Re: DEREGULATION AFFECTS MARGIN ONLY… Re: THE TEST OF DEREGULATION IS ON PER LITER MARGIN… Fw: Re: For CEBU C… THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION/Let’s oil ourselves More »

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s Comment #4

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s Comment #4

[This is Mar Tecson’s comment on Marcial Ocampo’s comment #4.  The reader is advised to add his comments to this blog.  Cheers.  Marcial]

Marcial Ocampo’s response is found in these links:

http://energytechnologyexpert.com/oil-and-gas/oil-crisis/the-case-against-oil-deregulation-–-marcial-ocampo’s-comment-5/

http://www.energyblogs.com/GlobalEnergyNewsandEconomics2009/index.cfm?mode=entry&entry=202A0565-1372-574A-8C6EAE86D63D4E82

From: Marcelo Tecson <martecson@yahoo.com>

Subject: LET US USE BOTH PROFITABLITY MEASUREMENTS… Re: PER LITER MARGIN is Gateway to PERCENT RETURN on CAPITAL… Re: DEREGULATION AFFECTS MARGIN ONLY… Re: THE TEST OF DEREGULATION IS ON PER LITER MARGIN… Fw: Re: For CEBU C… THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION/Let’s oil ourselves: Friday, October 2, 2009, 12:48 PM More »

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s Comment #3

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s Comment #3

[This is Mar Tecson’s comment to Marcial Ocampo’s response / comment #3 also.  Please add your own comments and suggestions to our ideas.  Cheers.  Marcial]

Marcial Ocampo’s response may be found in these links:

http://energytechnologyexpert.com/oil-and-gas/oil-crisis/the-case-against-oil-deregulation-–-marcial-ocampo’s-comment-4/

http://www.energyblogs.com/GlobalEnergyNewsandEconomics2009/index.cfm?mode=entry&entry=2027F8DC-1372-574A-8C6589DA48D9D0F9

From: Marcelo Tecson <martecson@yahoo.com>

Subject: PER LITER MARGIN is Gateway to PERCENT RETURN on CAPITAL… Re: DEREGULATION AFFECTS MARGIN ONLY… Re: THE TEST OF DEREGULATION IS ON PER LITER MARGIN… Fw: Re: For CEBU C… THE CASE AGAINST OIL More »

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s comment #2

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s comment #2

[This is Mar Tecson’s comment to Marcial Ocampo’s response / comment #2.  The reader is encouraged to share also his views to supplement our ideas.  Cheers.  Marcial]

Marcial Ocampo’s response may be found in these links:

http://energytechnologyexpert.com/oil-and-gas/oil-crisis/the-case-against-oil-deregulation-–-marcial-ocampo’s-comment-3/

http://www.energyblogs.com/GlobalEnergyNewsandEconomics2009/index.cfm?mode=entry&entry=201FDC43-1372-574A-8CC2C15B883418B7

From: Marcelo Tecson <martecson@yahoo.com>

Subject: DEREGULATION AFFECTS MARGIN ONLY… Re: THE TEST OF DEREGULATION IS ON PER LITER MARGIN… Fw: Re: For CEBU C… THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION/Let’s oil ourselves More »

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s comment #1

THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION – Mar Tecson’s comment #1

[This is the first response from Mar Tecson on Marcial Ocampo’s comment #1.  Cheers.  Marcial]

Marcial Ocampo’s response may be found from these links:

http://energytechnologyexpert.com/oil-and-gas/oil-crisis/the-case-against-oil-deregulation-–-marcial-ocampo’s-comment-2/

http://www.energyblogs.com/GlobalEnergyNewsandEconomics2009/index.cfm?mode=entry&entry=201BEB0B-1372-574A-8C1E067D48AD0432

From: Marcelo Tecson <martecson@yahoo.com>

Subject: THE TEST OF DEREGULATION IS ON PER LITER MARGIN… Fw: Re: For CEBU C… THE CASE AGAINST OIL DEREGULATION/Let’s oil ourselves More »

How to calculate oil price adjustments given changes in product MOPS and foreign exchange rate

How to calculate oil price adjustments given changes in product MOPS and foreign exchange rate

In a deregulated regulatory framework such as in the Philippines, price adjustments on a weekly basis are being implemented by both the three oil majors (Petron, Pilipinas Shell and Chevron/Caltex) and minor industry players (Flying V, Sea Oil, Total, Jetti, Unioil, Eastern, PTT, etc.).

Such adjustments are implemented by each company since the main price determinant of domestic oil prices in the Philippines has shifted to the small incremental volumes brought in by the minor industry players having product inventories of 1-2 weeks only, as opposed to previous crude oil inventories by the two remaining refiners (Petron and Pilipinas Shell) of around 1-2 months of crude.

Product imports are based on the Mean of Platts Singapore (MOPS) which track all major oil trades in the Asian Region while crude oil imports are based on the Dubai crude marker price which tracks all major crude oil exchanges in the Asian and Indian ocean economies.

In my previous blog on oil pricing, the author has presented the step-by-step procedure for calculating domestic price by simply following the oil supply chain: More »

How to predict early dam water release – the key to minimizing flooding during typhoons

October 10th, 2009 8 Comments   Posted in large hydro, weather

How to predict early dam water release – the key to minimizing flooding during typhoons

The Philippines is in the news around the world today.  CNN, local media ABS-CBN and other international and local news media reported that five (5) major hydro dams have released water at the onset of Typhoon “Ondoy”, and after a lull, did some pre-emptive release again in anticipation of a new Typhoon “Pepeng”, only to be overwhelmed again with the return of Typhoon “Ondoy” as a result of the “Fujiwara” effect when two adjacent weather disturbances are close to one another.

Unless the dam itself is in danger of collapsing under the weight of its stored water, one could not release dam water at the height of a storm as this will either aggravate existing flooding or initiate wide spread flooding as the rampaging waters will cause land slides and casualties, and destroy earthen dikes, bridges, roads, homes and agricultural lands.

The value of damage and loss of lives could simply not justify the storage of water for future use during summer months for irrigation and power generation.  This necessitates a closer review of the operating “rule curve” of the dam being followed by dam operators in the light of the very recent severe storms bringing large volumes of water over a very short period of time, perhaps as a result of global warming and climate change (warm waters and low pressure areas create extreme weather disturbances characterized with strong winds, heavy rainfall and storm surges that flood coastal areas). More »