How to improve the economy thru integrated energy, economic and social planning

October 18th, 2009 2 Comments   Posted in energy efficiency

Energy Efficiency Market Transformation Concept Paper

By: Marcial T. Ocampo

Energy Consultant


The surging oil & gas energy prices in the world and domestic market, mainly driven by steep increase in the market price of the widely traded Dubai crude has resulted in serious consequences for the end consumer and the country – rising domestic fuel and electricity prices, surging food prices, higher transport fares and consequently higher inflation, depreciating peso, lower economic growth rate and greater risk of higher budget deficit. More »

How to calculate overall thermal efficiency of combined cycle power plants – a sample CCGT presented

How to calculate overall thermal efficiency of combined cycle power plants – a sample CCGT presented

Calculating or predicting the overall performance of a combined cycle power plant, specifically a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant is sometimes difficult for most design engineers. Your favorite energy technology expert again comes to the rescue – Engineer Marcial T. Ocampo – has derived the following equation to guide the design engineer and project finance modeler or business development engineer in predicting the overall thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. More »

Energy Technology Expert – my expertise and services

Where to Get Assistance for Energy & Electricity Investment Opportunities in the Philippines

Marcial Ocampo provides a blog on issues and concerns regarding current and future fuel cycles and power generation technologies as they affect the environment, fuel supplies and power generation capacities, efficiency of utilization of fuel or energy resource, pollution & greenhouse gas emissions, and cost of power (overnight capital cost $/kW) and energy (levelized $/kWh).

He provides market, technical and economic feasibility studies and prepares project finance models for determining asset value (bid price), levelized price of energy or electricity, or equity returns (DCF IRR).

He is also familiar with investment opportunities in the Philippine energy and electricity sector (Philippine Energy Plan, Power Development Plan) and the regulatory framework (EPIRA and RE laws,  implementing rules and regulations, Distribution Code, Grid Code) for purchasing a power plant from PSALM/NPC or for putting up a new power plant (conventional, fossil or renewable).

He can guide you in securing incentives under the latest Philippine Renewable Energy (RE) law and its implementing rules and regulations (IRR).

In addition, he could guide you in securing the needed endorsement from the Philippine Department of Energy (DOE), permits and licenses from the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) and other government agencies (DTI, SEC, BIR, DENR, EMB, NWRB, PNRI, DOLE, NTC, BOC, PPA, ATO, PDEA, BOI, NCIP and LGUs) in order that the facility is duly licensed to operate as a power generation facility with an electricity tariff that is the “best new entrant” for the given location and application in order to balance the need of the customers for affordable electricity and the need of the investor to meet its investment return criteria.

Should you need assistance in preparing a project finance model and a feasibility study (market, technical, economic, financial) using Philippine oil, energy and electricity data, please don’t hesitate to contact Marcial.

email:   and

tel/fax: (632)-932-5530 More »

Fuel & Energy Technology Expert is Here

Fuel & Energy Technology Expert is Here

Marcial Ocampo, your favorite energy technology expert, is here to provide you latest information on:

1) energy and oil prices (international and domestic pump price calculation)

2) renewable energy and non-renewable energy and electricity

3) cost of power generation – capital and O&M cost

4) levelized cost of energy and electricity

5) Philippine energy and electricity demand and supply

6) project finance and financial modeling

7) power plant efficiency and performance

8) project feasibility studies for biofuels and power plant (market, technical, economic and financial)

Examples of Power Generation Technologies in commercial use are as follows:

Oil – Gas Thermal

Reciprocating / Piston Engine:

Small or High-Speed
Medium Speed
Large or Slow Speed
Combined Cycle – Waste Heat Boiler

Natural Gas – Simple GT:

Aero-Derivative GT
With Recuperation
Humid Air Turbine (HAT)
Cascaded Humid Air Turbine (CHAT)
Heavy Frame GT

Natural Gas – Combined Cycle GT


Pulverized Coal PC
Atmospheric CFB
Pressurized FBC
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC
Integrated Gasification Humid Air Turbine IGHAT
Direct Coal-Fired Combined Cycle DCCC
Supercritical & Ultra-Supercritical Coal Comb.

Nuclear Fission:

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), advanced
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR):
– Candu Reactor
High Temp. Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR)
Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)
Breeder Reactors

Nuclear Fusion


– Pelton Turbine – 50-6,000 ft head
– Francis Turbine – 10-2,000 ft head
– Propeller Turbine – 10 – 300 ft head:
– Kaplan Turbine
Small / Mini

Energy Storage:

Pumped Hydro
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) – Huntorf:
– Large CAES
– Small CAES
– Above Ground CAES
Flywheel Systems
Utility Scale Batteries (USB):
– Lead acid
– Advanced
Stored Hydrogen
Superconduction Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)


Dry Steam (Vapor)
Flashed Steam (Single, Double)
Binary Cycle
Petrothermal (Hot Dry Rock)
Geothermal Preheat
Fossil Superheat


Solar PV:

Crystalline silicon
Thin film – Amorphous Silicon
Thin film – Indium Diselenide
Flat Plate
High Efficiency Multi Junction (IHCPV)

Solar Thermal:
Salt Pond (power + water)

Fuel Cells:

Alkaline (AFC)
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
Proton Exchange Membrane  (PEM)
Direct Methanol (DMFC)
Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
Solid Oxide-GT  (SOFC-GT)


Direct Combustion
Co-firing with Coal
Biomass Gasification (BIGCC)
Municipal Waste Treatment

Landfill Gas (40 – 60% CH4)
Anaerobic Digestion Biogas (65% CH4)
Sewage Treatment

Ocean Thermal:

Claude (open cycle)
Controlled Flash Evaporation (open)
Anderson (closed cycle)

Ocean Wave:

Oscillating Water Column (OWC)
Hydraulic Accumulator
High Level Reservoir
Float or Pitching Devices
Wave Surge or Focusing (“tapchan”)

Tidal Power:

Single Pool
Modulated Single Pool w/ Pumped Hydro
Two Pool

Additional technologies provided by readers of this blog:

Waste Heat Recovery: (from Alan Belcher’s comments)

Steam Rankine Cycle (Recycled Energy Development, Inc.)

Organic Rankine Cycle (Ormat Technologies, Inc.)*

Low Temperature Brayton Cycle (Pegasus Energy Project, Inc.)