Wind Energy

The file (697 KB) will cover the following topics:

WIND ENERGY

  • An indirect form of solar energy stored in kinetic form
  • Induced chiefly by the uneven heating of the earth’s crust by the sun.

Uses of Wind Energy

  1. Home owners may generate electricity, charge batteries, sell excess power to utility
  2. Large, modern turbines in wind farms can produce electricity for utilities
  3. Remote villages can generate power, pump water, grind grain, meet their basic energy needs.

Topics – Wind Energy

  • Wind Energy, Its Uses and History
  • Global Wind Resource Potential
  • Basic Principles of Operation & Components
  • Power Output and Maximum Efficiency
  • Types of Wind Mills and Examples
  • Cost of Wind Power (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

History of Wind Turbines

  • Hero of Alexandria described a wind machine in the 1st century AD
  • Arabic texts of the 9th century talked of 7th century windmill.
  • Windmills spread to Europe from the Middle East for grinding grain, drainage, pumping, saw-milling, etc.
  • Post mills (rotated into the wind), were known in France and England in the 12th century. Tower mills (sails on top rotated), were introduced in France around the 14th century.
  • The first windmill to drive an electric generator was built by P. Lacour of Denmark in the late 19th century.
  • In 1931, a propeller-type windmill was built in Crimea for low-voltage electricity that fed into the local grid.
  • Experiments in 1940 led to a large Smith-Putnam machine, a twin-blade 55m diameter propeller-type rotor on a 34m tower rated at 1.25 MW ac power at 28 rpm.

Global Wind Resource

  • Wind is the movement of air in response to pressure differences within the atmosphere, caused primarily by uneven heating by the sun on the surface of the earth, exerting a force which causes air masses to move from a region of high pressure to a low one.
  • About 1.7 million TWh of energy each year is generated in the form of wind over the earth’s land masses, much more over the globe as a whole. Only a small fraction can be harnessed to generate useful energy because of competing land use.
  • A 1991 estimate puts the realizable global wind power potential at 53,000 TWh per year.
  • US, UK and China have vast wind resource potential. With only 6% of total land area available for wind, US could generate about 500,000 MW. Present US capacity is 2,500 MW.

Basic Principles and Components of a Modern Wind Turbine

  • Turbine rotor captures the wind energy and converts it into mechanical energy fed via a gearbox to a generator
  • Gearbox / generator housed in an enclosed nacelle with the turbine rotor is attached to its front
  • Combined rotor and nacelle mounted on a tower fitted with a yawing system keeps the turbine rotor facing into the wind always

Types of Modern Wind Turbines

  • Vertical-Axis Windmills – early machines known as Persian windmills; evolved from ship sails made of canvas or wood attached to a large horizontal wheel; when used to grind grain into flour, they were called windmills.
  • Horizontal-Axis Windmills –first designs had sails built on a post that could face into any wind direction, and were called post mills; evolved throughout the Middle Ages and was used for grinding grain, drainage, pumping, saw-milling.

Price: 56 USD


Energy Storage Technologies

The file (806 KB) will cover the following topics:

STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

Energy Storage – used to store and regenerate power for peak shaving and to even out generation fluctuations created by fluctuations in the resource being exploited

Allows greater use of intermittent renewable energy technologies – off-peak wind, solar, ocean wave, tidal power are stored in batteries, pumped storage hydro or stored hydrogen from electrolysis of water.

Topics – Storage Technologies

  • Energy Storage, Its Uses
  • Energy Storage Systems and Types
  • Hourly and Daily Power Consumption
  • Principles of Energy Storage
  • Cost of Energy Storage Technologies
  • Benefits from Energy Storage
  • Environmental Impact & Risks
  • Distributed Generation

Price: 56 USD


Solar Energy

The file (871 KB) will cover the following topics:

Solar energy has potential of supplying all our energy needs for: electric, thermal, process, chemical and even transportation; however, it is very diffuse, cyclic and often undependable because of varying weather conditions.

  • Sun – largest object in our solar system; outer visible layer called photosphere has temperature of 6,000 C
  • Sunlight or solar energy – main source of energy for wind, hydro, ocean and biomass.

Price: 34USD


Simple Gas Turbine (GT)

The file (525 KB) will cover the following topics:

Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plants

  • 130 BC – Hero of Alexandria’s reaction steam turbine
  • 1550 – Leonardo da Vinci’s “smoke mill”
  • 1629 – Giovanni Branca’s impulse steam turbine
  • 1791 – John Barber’s patent for steam turbine – “gas was produced from heated coal, mixed with air, compressed and then burnt to produce a high speed jet that impinged on radial blades on a turbine wheel rim”.

Topics – Simple Gas Turbines

  • Gas Turbines, Its Uses and History
  • Aero-Derivative Gas Turbine Developments
  • Operating Principle of a Gas Turbine
  • Ideal & Non-Ideal Brayton Cycle, Its Efficiency
  • Effects of Varying Compression Ratio
  • Modifications to Improve Efficiency
  • Gas Turbine Fuels
  • Gas Turbine Technologies
  • Advantages, Disadvantages of GT
  • Environmental Impact, Risks of GT

Price: 44 USD


Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

The file (69 KB) will cover the following topics:

Renewable Sources of Energy

  • Geothermal Energy (radioactive decay and initial heat of earth)
  • Solar Energy (radiation from sun)
  • Hydro
  • Solar PV and Solar Thermal
  • Wind
  • Biomass and Wastes
  • Ocean Thermal
  • Ocean Wave, Ocean Current
  • Tidal Energy (gravitational pull of moon and earth’s rotation)
  • Hydrogen Energy (from biomass and water)

Price: 10 USD


Pulverized Coal

The file (1.59 MB) will cover the following topics:

TRADITIONAL COAL THERMAL

Coal is formed from plants by chemical and geological processes which occur over million of years.

First product of this process was peat (partially decomposed stems, twigs, bark), then transformed into lignite, bituminous, then anthracite.

Coal is the largest source of energy for power and other uses:

Primary Energy Electricity

World: 23%                        40%

US: 55%

Philippines: 13%                        38%

Topics – Traditional Coal Thermal

  • Coal Resource : Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Types of Coal and Reserves
  • Properties of Coal, Coal-Mixtures and Classification by Rank
  • Examples of Pulverized Coal Boilers & Plants
  • Basic Principle of Pulverized Coal Thermal Plant
  • Coal Mining, Preparation, Transport, Storage, Pulverization & Firing
  • Pollution Control Technologies in Coal Plants
  • Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants
  • Cost of Coal-Fired Plants and Treatment (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Coal Plants in the Philippines
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 64 USD


Primary Energy Sources

March 12th, 2009 2 Comments   Posted in energy sources, primary energy

The file (294 KB) will cover the following topics:

PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCES

The traditional way of classifying primary energy sources is as follows:
Fossil fuels:

  • Solid (coal, petroleum coke or petcoke)
  • Liquid (petroleum fuels, gas liquids and derivatives e.g. condensate, methanol, ethanol)
  • Gas (natural gas, LPG, hydrogen)

Nuclear fuels (uranium, plutonium)

Renewable energy (hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, ocean, biomass, wastes)

The California Energy Commission has a different way of classifying fuel and technology cycles:

Price: 60 USD


Piston Engines

The file (138 KB) will cover the following topics:

Piston or Reciprocating Engines

4-Stroke medium speed diesel engines are mainly used for power generation on small islands, in remote areas and for industrial purposes. Medium speed technology is competitive for intermediate and base load power plants up to 200 MW: high levels of reliability and availability, rapid construction and installation, competitive capital cost and delivery times, and total efficiency approaching 90% for CHP plants.

Topics – Piston Engine

  • Piston Engine, Its Uses, Fuels
  • Types of Diesel Engines and Applications
  • Compression Ratio and Efficiency of Engines
  • Turbo-Charging of Engines
  • Engine Heat Balance
  • Basic Engine Construction & Support Systems
  • Cost of Diesel Power
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 30 USD


Oil Thermal

The file (1.21 MB) will cover the following topics:

Oil Thermal Energy

Rock oil” was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859 by a man drilling for water

Crude oil accounts for 40% of energy use worldwide: 3% of power comes from oil, 16% from natural gas.

High energy density, 43 MJ/kg (18,600 Btu/lb), and relatively clean burning, versatile.

Topics – Oil Thermal

  • Oil & Gas Resource: Origin, Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Properties of Liquid Fuels, Fuel Oils and Natural Gas
  • Basic Principle of Oil-Gas Thermal Plant
  • Ideal and Modified Rankine (Steam) Cycle Efficiency, Heat Rates
  • Oil-Gas Burners (Circular, S-type, Reduced NOx)
  • Reducing NOx Emissions (FGR, LEA, 2-stage air, Re-burning)
  • Emissions from Power Plants
  • Pollution Control Technologies used in Power Generation
  • Cost of Power Generation (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Oil-Thermal and Diesel Plants in the Philippines
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 42 USD


Ocean Energy

The file (657 KB) will cover the following topics:

OCEAN ENERGY

Wave energy – winds generate large ocean waves that can be used to generate power from its potential and kinetic energy.

Ocean temperature energy conversion (OTEC) – temperature gradient between the surface and bottom of the ocean can be utilized in a heat engine to generate power

Tidal energy – caused by lunar and solar gravitational forces acting together with that from the earth on the ocean waters to create tidal flows manifested by the rise and fall of waters that vary daily and seasonally from a few centimeters up to 8-10 meters in some parts of the world. The potential energy of the tides is tapped to generate power.

Topics – Ocean Energy

  • Ocean Energy
  • Energy from Oceans (OTEC, Wave, Hydro, Tidal)
  • Efficiency & Types of OTEC (Open, Closed, Hybrid)
  • Ocean Waves: Potential, Progressive Wave Motion, Power Density
  • Devices that Convert Ocean Wave to Energy
  • Ocean Wave Power Plants
  • Tidal Energy, Its Potential
  • Types of Tidal Power Plants (Single-Pool, Modulated, Two-Pool)
  • Tidal Energy Power Plants
  • Cost of Ocean & Tidal Power
  • Benefits from Ocean & Tidal Energy
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 26 USD


Nuclear Energy

The file (781 KB) will cover the following topics:

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power – most controversial of all forms of power generation

Operating principle – Controlled nuclear fission in a reactor using uranium as fuel produces heat, which is captured to produce steam. The steam is used to drive a steam turbine, which in turn drives an electric generator.

Topics – Nuclear Energy

  • Nuclear Energy, Its Uses and History
  • Nuclear Power Capacity and Power Generation
  • Fundamentals of Nuclear Power
  • Types of Nuclear Reactors
  • BWR, PWR, AGR, HTGR, Breeder, GT-MHR
  • Cost of Nuclear Power
  • Environmental Considerations
  • Risks

Price: 70 USD


Near-Term Energy Sources

March 12th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in energy sources, power generation

The file (576 KB) will cover the following topics:

NOT YET COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FUEL CYCLES
Near Term (within 20 years)

  • Coal Direct Liquefaction
  • Coal Indirect Liquefaction
  • Coal Pyrolysis
  • Petrothermal – Hot Dry Rock

Price: 70 USD


Long Term Energy Fuel Cycles

March 11th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in energy sources, power generation

The file (373 KB) will cover the following topics:

NOT YET COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FUEL CYCLES
Long Term (20 – 50 years)

  • Nuclear Fission
  • Oil Shale
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Hydrogen
  • Petrothermal – Magma

Price: 70 USD


Hydrogen Energy

The file (91 KB) will cover the following topics:

HYDROGEN ENERGY

Hydrogen – 3rd most abundant element on earth’s surface; found primarily in water [H2O] and organic compounds and generally produced from hydrocarbons thru reforming and water thru electrolysis.

When burned as fuel or converted to electricity, it joins with oxygen [O2] again to form water.

Price: 20 USD


Hydro Power

The file (633 KB) will cover the following topics:

Hydro Power

Flowing water creates energy that can be stored, captured and turned into electricity. Hydropower is the world’s most important renewable energy source. It provides 7.2% of world’s primary energy and 18.5% of electric power generation.

Price: 26 USD


Geothermal Energy

The file (689 KB) will cover the following topics:

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

  • heat (thermal) from the earth (geo)
  • thermal energy in the rock and fluid that fills fractures and pores within the rock in the earth’s crust.

The earth’s initial energy from its molten state is sustained thru energy input from the sun and radioactive decay deep within the earth.

Price: 28 USD


Fuel Cells

The file (566 KB) will cover the following topics:

FUEL CELLS

Fuel Cell: an electrochemical device, closely related to the battery, that can generate electricity from hydrogen, which in turn can be extracted from natural gas or other hydrocarbon gases through a chemical process called reforming.

Topics – Fuel Cells

  • Fuel Cells, Its Uses and History
  • Fuel Cell Principle, Characteristics, Operating Conditions
  • Fuel Cell Concept for Power, Heat & Water
  • Balance of Plant Equipment
  • Fuel Cell Process Diagram, Hydrogen Gas Reformation
  • Types of Fuel Cells (AFC, PAFC, PEM, MCFC, SOFC)
  • Advanced Fuel Cell Technologies (CHP, Hybrid FC-GT-IGCC)
  • Cost of Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Cell Applications, Advantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

History of Fuel Cel

  • Hydrolysis – if an electrical voltage is applied to water by placing two electrodes into the liquid and attaching a battery to them, the voltage induces a chemical reaction: hydrogen is produced at one electrode and oxygen at the other
  • 1839 – Sir William Grove observed that the process known as “hydrolysis” can also go backwards – hydrogen will react at one electrode and oxygen at the other producing water and an electrical voltage between the electrodes. It was only a century later that Francis Bacon began to develop practical fuel cells.
  • 1950s – Pratt and Whitney (now United Technologies) licensed Bacon’s technology and developed it for the US space program. The Gemini, Apollo and space shuttle program all used fuel cells to generate electricity and produce drinking water on-board by just bringing hydrogen fuel and oxygen with them.

Fuel Cell Principle

  • If an electrical voltage is applied on water, by placing two electrodes into the liquid and attaching a DC battery to them, the voltage induces a chemical reaction; hydrogen and oxygen is produced at each electrode:

H2O + DC voltage è H2 + O2

  • In 1839, Sir William Grove observed this process, known as hydrolysis, can also go backwards – reversible. Hydrogen will react at one electrode and oxygen at the other, producing water and DC electrical voltage between the electrodes.
  • During reverse hydrolysis, hydrogen would act at one electrode and oxygen at the other, producing water, heat and electrical voltage (DC) between the electrodes.

Fuel (H2) + O2 + platinum catalyst è H20 + DC voltage

Fuel Cell Characteristics

  • Operates as a continuous battery – continuous fueling
  • Never needs recharging
  • Based on reverse hydrolysis – converts hydrogen and oxygen into water and electricity
  • Current depends on electrode area
  • Voltage depends on materials of construction, typically less than 1 volt.

Balance of Plant Equipment

  • Power-conditioning equipment needed are expensive
  • Fuel processing comprises a large part of cost and project development.
  • The front-end processing and fuel cell technology is affected by the fuel and application: Hydrogen, Natural gas, Methanol, Gasoline, Biomass, Coal

Price: 30 USD


Cost of Power Generation Technologies

The file (129 KB) will cover the following topics:

Type of power plant, Commercial Capacity, Overnight Capital Cost, Fixed O&M ($/kW/yr), Variable O&M (cents/kWh), Thermal Efficiency or Plant Heat Rate, Availability Factor, Load Factor, Construction Lead Time, Economic Life, Fuel Cost ($/GJ), Levelized Cost of Electricity ($/kWh).

Power Generation Technologies:

  • Oil – Gas Thermal
  • Reciprocating / Piston Engine
  • Small or High-Speed
  • Medium Speed
  • Large or Slow Speed
  • Combined Cycle – Waste Heat Boiler
  • Natural Gas – Simple GT
  • Aero-Derivative GT
  • With Recuperation
  • Humid Air Turbine (HAT)
  • Cascaded Humid Air Turbine (CHAT)
  • Heavy Frame GT
  • Natural Gas – Combined Cycle GT
  • Coal – Pulverized
  • Atmospheric CFB
  • Pressurized FBC
  • IGCC
  • IGHAT
  • Direct Coal-Fired Combined Cycle (DCCC)
  • Super critical & Ultra-Super critical Coal Comb.
  • Geothermal
  • Dry Steam (Vapor)
  • Flashed Steam (Single, Double)
  • Binary Cycle
  • Petrothermal (Hot Dry Rock)
  • Geothermal Preheat
  • Fossil Superheat
  • Nuclear Fission
  • Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), advanced
  • Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
  • Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
  • Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR)
  • Candu Reactor
  • High Temp. Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR)
  • Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)
  • Breeder Reactors
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Hydro
  • Large
  • Pelton Turbine – 50-6,000 ft head
  • Francis Turbine – 10-2,000 ft head
  • Propeller Turbine – 10 – 300 ft head
  • Kaplan Turbine
  • Small / Mini
  • Micro
  • Pumped Hydro
  • Wind
  • Solar PV
  • Crystalline silicon
  • Thin film – Amorphous Silicon
  • Thin film – Indium Diselenide
  • Flat Plate
  • High Efficiency Multi Junction – IHCPV
  • Solar Thermal
  • Trough
  • Tower
  • Dish
  • Salt Pond (power + water)
  • Biomass
  • Direct Combustion
  • Co-firing with Coal
  • Biomass Gasification (BIGCC)
  • Municipal Waste
  • Pyrolysis
  • Landfill Gas (40 – 60% CH4)
  • Anaerobic Digestion (65% CH4)
  • Sewage Digestion
  • Fuel Cells
  • Alkaline (AFC)
  • Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
  • Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
  • Direct Methanol
  • Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
  • Solid Oxide-GT (SOFC)
  • Solid Oxide-GT (SOFC-GT)
  • Energy Storage:
  • Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) – Huntorf
  • Large CAES
  • Small CAES
  • Above Ground CAES
  • Flywheel Systems
  • Utility Scale Batteries (USB)
  • Lead acid
  • Advanced
  • Stored Hydrogen
  • Superconduction Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
  • Ultracapacitors
  • Ocean Thermal
  • Claude (open cycle)
  • Controlled Flash Evaporation (open)
  • Anderson (closed cycle)
  • Ocean Wave
  • Oscillating Water Column (OWC)
  • Hydraulic Accumulator
  • High Level Reservoir
  • Float or Pitching Devices
  • Wave Surge or Focusing (“tapchan”)
  • Pendulor
  • Tidal Power
  • Single Pool
  • Modulated Single Pool w/ Pumped Hydro
  • Two Pool

Price: 30 USD


Combined Heat & Power (Cogeneration)

The file (313 KB) will cover the following topics:

Combined Heat & Power (Cogeneration)

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the simultaneous generation of electricity and steam (or heat) in a single power plant. It has been long used by industries and municipalities that need process steam or heat as well as electricity. CHP or cogeneration is not usually used by large utilities which tend to produce electricity only. It is advisable only for industries and municipalities if they can produce electricity cheaper or more conveniently; otherwise, buy from the utility instead.

In theory, CHP provides the most efficient use of energy resources, often utilizing up to 90% of the heat energy of the fossil fuel. In practice, while the efficiency of entire process is recognized, its application has been limited.

Topics – Combined Heat & Power

  • Combined Heat & Power, Its Uses and History
  • Basic Principle of Combined Heat & Power (CHP)
  • CHP or Cogeneration Plant Efficiency
  • Efficiency of Separate Generation
  • Types of Cogeneration Cycles
  • Other CHP Technologies
  • Opportunities for CHP
  • Cost of CHP (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 6 USD





Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

The file (4.26 MB) will cover the following topics:

Combined Cycle GT (CCGT)

GTs have at best efficiencies from 35% to 42%. Almost 60% of the fuel energy is wasted in the turbine exhaust of a GT. Capturing this waste heat in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is the basis of the combined cycle (Brayton + Rankine). The HRSG produces steam that drives a turbo-generator to produce additional power.

Topics – Combined Cycle GT

  • Operating Principle of a Combined Cycle GT
  • Combined Brayton + Rankine Cycles
  • Comparison of Various CCGT Configurations
  • CCGT (Gas vs Liquid Firing)
  • CCGT Energy Balance
  • Examples of Gas Turbine Technologies
  • Cost of GT Technologies
  • GT and CCGT Plants in the Philippines
  • Advantages, Disadvantages of CCGT
  • Environmental Impact, Risks of CCGT

Price: 80 USD