Archive for the ‘environmental impacts’ Category:
Flooding in Brisbane and Australia – need for dam water release simulation model
It is all over CNN and the cable news. Brisbane has been hit by an “inland tsunami” arising from dam water release at the height of a typhoon and massive rainfall over the past few days.
It appears that the dam above Brisbane that was designed to protect it from flooding experienced in 1976 released excess water in order to avoid serious damage to the dam structure itself.
This article below will perhaps help the Australian authorities in calculating the needed advanced warning and time for pre-emptive discharge in order to remove excess water at a safe rate so that the incoming storm could be safely contained by the dam. Having sufficient storage capacity of at least one storm (4-6 meters to handle one storm) is a must that should be maintained at all times, especially after a previous storm has exited and an incoming storm has been spotted by the weather bureau through Doppler Radar which locates storms and estimate its rainfall potential. More »
How to predict timing and quantity of pre-emptive safe discharge – a dam simulation model
THIS IS IT! As the saying goes, a dam simulation model that could be easily implemented and calibrated with actual rainfall and river gauging data and compared with actual power generation and spillway discharge to predict dam height and dam water volume is now available to government agencies, dam operators, dam designers and ordinary laymen. Please write the author for arrangements on how to secure this state-of-the-art dam simulation model. More »
How to help your government and people solve life-threatening and property-damaging events
As a sequel to my earlier blog on “how to predict pre-emptive safe discharge of dam water in anticipation of an incoming storm”, allow me to share my own findings, conclusions and recommendations in order that authorities could formulate a workable and acceptable plan for all the stakeholders in charge of operating and managing dams as well as the affected residents situated at the downstream communities.
This is my own little way of sharing my knowledge, expertise and experience to help my government and country overcome the recurring problem of devastating flooding during the typhoon season. More »
How to calculate power plant emissions – solution to problem of reader
Please find on the next page a snippet of my spreadsheet showing the solution. The model was calibrated to the above municipal solid fuel analysis at 80% excess air firing for combustion of municipal solid waste to meet the given SO2 emission of 15.75 mg/Nm3.
Assuming 26% thermal efficiency and given firing rate of 185,000 metric tons per year of 7018 hours (around 80% capacity factor), your plant must be generating over 52.41 MW of power with 9% plant own use (parasitic load assumed).
The fuel should have a sulfur analysis of 0.57% Sulfur (dry basis) in order to give such emission.
At 31.30% moisture in the wet fuel, this translates to 0.39% Sulfur (wet basis).
Once the sulfur in the wet fuel is known, the problem is solved:
kg SO2 per metric ton fuel (wet) = (0.39 / 100) x (mw of SO2 / mw of S) x (1000 kg / metric ton)
= (0.39 / 100) x (64.0648 / 32.0660) x (1000) = 7.806 kg SO2 per metric ton (tonne) of wet fuel More »
FYI… Postscript for Thursday, Oct. 18,
quotes Mr. M. Ocampo.
POSTSCRIPT/ PhilSTAR/ Oct. 15, 2009/ Thursday
By Federico D. Pascual Jr.
* * *
UNSTEADY HAND: In the Senate, one listens in horror to the testimony of dam managers and executives of the National Power Corp., upon whose judgment rests the crucial decision of when and how to release impounded water from the dams.
Their unsteady hand is poised on the lever that could unleash death and destruction on communities downstream — as had happened in the recent flooding in Central and Northern Luzon that killed hundreds and destroyed properties worth billions of pesos.
Their testimony and buck-passing gave the impression they think that dam water is released only when the reservoir is dangerously full, and that that is done mainly to save the structure from collapse. More »
How to Plan Ahead for a Dam Failure – US FEMA guidelines
[This article is being provided by Marcial Ocampo as a guide to NAPOCOR, PAGASA, NDCC, LGUs and dam operators for an effective response in the event that a catastrophic failure of a dam is imminent or has occurred. Currently, an inter-agency committee has been constituted to review and submit by November 30, 2009 a revised DAM RELEASE PROTOCOL to avoid the very recent catastrophic release of excess water by five dams at the height of two super typhoons that inundated and damaged large areas of central and northern Luzon, Philippines. The links has been obtained thru Internet search using the search engine of MSN. Cheers. Marcial]
The following article from US FEMA provides the important links for all topics related to planning ahead for a dam failure. It is the author’s view that all concerned shall be well informed in advance on a DAM OPERATION PROTOCOL in order to avoid dam failure as a result of excessive rainfall that could not anymore be safely stored by a dam.
As a preparatory document, the reader is advised to read a glossary or list of definitions related to dam operations in order to fully appreciate the contents of the links shown below. The two links are as follow: More »
US Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety: Glossary of Terms (FEMA 148)
[This US Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety is being presented by Marcial T. Ocampo, former Executive Director of PCIERD-DOST to the inter-agency technical committee tasked to review the DAM OPERATION PROTOCOL to be followed by NAPOCOR, PAGASA and other dam operators in the Philippines with the end in view of avoiding the tragic mistake of releasing dam water at the height of the typhoon in order to prevent the dam from collapsing. The general idea is to drain the dam in advance of approaching typhoon in order to have sufficient storage capacity to store the anticipated rainfall based on weather satellite or “Doppler Radar” measurements as they may become available in the future. This document was obtained by Marcial Ocampo using the internet search engine of MSN.]
The complete link to this document is shown below:
How to predict early safe release of dam water – reaction from Philippine Star Columnist Federico Pascual
FYI… Postscript for Thursday, Oct. 15, quotes Mr. M. Ocampo.
POSTSCRIPT/ PhilSTAR/ Oct. 15, 2009/ Thursday
By Federico D. Pascual Jr.
* * *
DAM FIASCO: Some managers of dams in Luzon may have thought that impounded water should be released only when it is about to reach a critical level, or that point when it will overflow by itself or might damage the dam if the pressure is not relieved soon enough.
Some experts think, however, that it is better to release gradually small volumes of water BEFORE the spilling point is reached instead of letting loose all the excess water in one deluge when the dam is full.
A post-mortem of water-release data indicates that the fast and massive flooding that hit communities downstream could have resulted from misconceptions of some dam managers.
It has been days that energy technologist Marcial Ocampo, former executive director of the PCIERD-DOST, called our attention to this, but we ignored his thesis because it was loaded with formulas and equations that we laymen cannot follow. More »
PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING POWER PLANT EMISSIONS
By: Marcial T. Ocampo
September 16, 2009
1) Input natural gas (fuel) analysis: % volume (same as % mol), molecular weights:
e.g. H2, CH4, C2H6, C3H8 … CO2, S, O2, N2, H2O moisture, ash.
2) Convert % volume to ultimate analysis % mass or weight (%C, %H2, % S, % O2, %N2, %H2O moisture, ash)
3) From the combustion equations;
C + O2 = CO2
S + O2 = S02
H2 + 1/2 O2 = H20
calculate the stoichiometric O2 in mols and lbs and that of N2 from air analysis. More »
The Big Three Oil Company Depots Allowed to Stay in Pandacan – says Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim
In today’s 29 May 2009 edition of Philippine Star “Lim allows oil depot to stay” as the Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim signed yesterday (May 28) a new city Ordinance 7177 that will allow the Big Three (Petron, Shell, Chevron/Caltex) oil companies to continue operating the Pandacan Oil Terminal complex as well as other industries in the city to stay, despite apprehension over possible terrorist attacks and accidents.
Mayor Lim signed city Ordinance 7177, which amends Ordinance 8027 creating Medium and Heavy Industrial Zones, as residents and supporters of the retention of the Pandacan Oil Terminal cheered the signing. (The previous Manila Mayor and now Environment (DENR) Secretary Lito Atienza and his Manila Council then passed Ordinance 8027 reclassifying the Pandacan area as residential zone from its previous industrial zone classification.) More »
The Big Three Oil Company Depots Will Be Allowed to Stay in Pandacan? – pros and cons
In yesterday’s issue of Philippine Star dated 27 May 2009 captioned “Lim to allow oil depots to stay in Pandacan?”, it appears that Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim is set to sign a controversial Ordinance 7177 (reclassifying Pandacan as industrial zone) allowing the oil depots to remain in Pandacan following an unprecedented meeting at the Petron Corporation oil depot complex which was attended by no less than President Gloria M. Arroyo, cabinet officials and oil company executives.
The meeting was held at the ground floor of the Petron Pandacan Terminal while GMA was presiding a Cabinet meeting two floors above. The ground floor dialogue was attended by Cabinet members headed by Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita, Trade & Industry (DTI) Secretary Peter Favila, Defense (DND) Secretary Gilbert Teodoro, Environment (DENR) Secretary Lito Atienza, Energy (DOE) Secretary Angelo Reyes, Labor (DOLE) Secretary Marianito Roque and Transportation (DOTC) Secretary Leandro Mendoza. More »
Where to Get Assistance for Energy & Electricity Investment Opportunities in the Philippines
Marcial Ocampo provides a blog on issues and concerns regarding current and future fuel cycles and power generation technologies as they affect the environment, fuel supplies and power generation capacities, efficiency of utilization of fuel or energy resource, pollution & greenhouse gas emissions, and cost of power (overnight capital cost $/kW) and energy (levelized $/kWh).
He provides market, technical and economic feasibility studies and prepares project finance models for determining asset value (bid price), levelized price of energy or electricity, or equity returns (DCF IRR).
He is also familiar with investment opportunities in the Philippine energy and electricity sector (Philippine Energy Plan, Power Development Plan) and the regulatory framework (EPIRA and RE laws, implementing rules and regulations, Distribution Code, Grid Code) for purchasing a power plant from PSALM/NPC or for putting up a new power plant (conventional, fossil or renewable).
He can guide you in securing incentives under the latest Philippine Renewable Energy (RE) law and its implementing rules and regulations (IRR).
In addition, he could guide you in securing the needed endorsement from the Philippine Department of Energy (DOE), permits and licenses from the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) and other government agencies (DTI, SEC, BIR, DENR, EMB, NWRB, PNRI, DOLE, NTC, BOC, PPA, ATO, PDEA, BOI, NCIP and LGUs) in order that the facility is duly licensed to operate as a power generation facility with an electricity tariff that is the “best new entrant” for the given location and application in order to balance the need of the customers for affordable electricity and the need of the investor to meet its investment return criteria.
Should you need assistance in preparing a project finance model and a feasibility study (market, technical, economic, financial) using Philippine oil, energy and electricity data, please don’t hesitate to contact Marcial.
email: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
tel/fax: (632)-932-5530 More »
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Fuel & Energy Technology Expert is Here
Marcial Ocampo, your favorite energy technology expert, is here to provide you latest information on:
1) energy and oil prices (international and domestic pump price calculation)
2) renewable energy and non-renewable energy and electricity
3) cost of power generation – capital and O&M cost
4) levelized cost of energy and electricity
5) Philippine energy and electricity demand and supply
6) project finance and financial modeling
7) power plant efficiency and performance
8) project feasibility studies for biofuels and power plant (market, technical, economic and financial)
Examples of Power Generation Technologies in commercial use are as follows:
Oil – Gas Thermal
Reciprocating / Piston Engine:
Small or High-Speed
Large or Slow Speed
Combined Cycle – Waste Heat Boiler
Natural Gas – Simple GT:
Humid Air Turbine (HAT)
Cascaded Humid Air Turbine (CHAT)
Heavy Frame GT
Natural Gas – Combined Cycle GT
Pulverized Coal PC
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC
Integrated Gasification Humid Air Turbine IGHAT
Direct Coal-Fired Combined Cycle DCCC
Supercritical & Ultra-Supercritical Coal Comb.
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), advanced
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR):
– Candu Reactor
High Temp. Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR)
Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)
– Pelton Turbine – 50-6,000 ft head
– Francis Turbine – 10-2,000 ft head
– Propeller Turbine – 10 – 300 ft head:
– Kaplan Turbine
Small / Mini
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) – Huntorf:
– Large CAES
– Small CAES
– Above Ground CAES
Utility Scale Batteries (USB):
– Lead acid
Superconduction Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
Dry Steam (Vapor)
Flashed Steam (Single, Double)
Petrothermal (Hot Dry Rock)
Thin film – Amorphous Silicon
Thin film – Indium Diselenide
High Efficiency Multi Junction (IHCPV)
Salt Pond (power + water)
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
Direct Methanol (DMFC)
Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
Solid Oxide-GT (SOFC-GT)
Co-firing with Coal
Biomass Gasification (BIGCC)
Municipal Waste Treatment
Landfill Gas (40 – 60% CH4)
Anaerobic Digestion Biogas (65% CH4)
Claude (open cycle)
Controlled Flash Evaporation (open)
Anderson (closed cycle)
Oscillating Water Column (OWC)
High Level Reservoir
Float or Pitching Devices
Wave Surge or Focusing (“tapchan”)
Modulated Single Pool w/ Pumped Hydro
Additional technologies provided by readers of this blog:
Waste Heat Recovery: (from Alan Belcher’s comments)
Steam Rankine Cycle (Recycled Energy Development, Inc.)
Organic Rankine Cycle (Ormat Technologies, Inc.)*
Low Temperature Brayton Cycle (Pegasus Energy Project, Inc.)
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