Archive for the ‘history of electricity and energy’ Category:
The Ultimate Commuter Vehicle Concept – electric regenerative renewable
In the recent automotive show in New York, visitors commented that “why only now are the big three motors of USA offering energy efficient compact vehicles after receiving massive government budget support?” Some commented that “have they not seen the writing on the wall several years back when the Japanese and other European car makers have started to include advanced technologies that provide greater fuel economy?” Finally some said “had the US car manufacturers and American consumers invested in fuel-efficient vehicles, the world oil price would have not soared to such $147 per barrel heights, the world would have avoided a global recession, and this global meltdown woud not have happened at all”
I guess these are all speculative, but it is never too late to do the right thing –> build fuel-efficient cars, save money on fuels, conserve oil so as not to drive its price upward, clean the environment and avoid global warming, and so on.
My concept of the ultimate vehicle consists of the following:
1) A small engine, perhaps of lawn-mower size, be it a spark-ignition, compression ignition or fuel cell, to drive an energy efficient electric generator (both prime mover engine and generator should be of best design and highest efficiency).
2) The electric generator charging an array of batteries of the best storage technology. The prime mover engine turns on only when the voltage of the battery pack goes lower than its set point.
3) The batteries drive the energy efficient electric motors or drive shafts on each wheel (either 2 wheel or 4 wheel drive).
4) The 4 wheels of the vehicle should be of such design that it has minimum rolling resistance, the vehicle itself is lightweight and made of composite materials that make it both strong but lightweight.
5) During day time, the batteries are primarily charged using solar PV cells, or in the absence of adequate sunlight and the voltage drops, the small engines cut in to drive the generator to charge the batteries.
6) When the vehicle is parked and there is no sunlight, it is charged using small wind vanes that could be deployed and retracked from the car’s ceiling.
The file (69 KB) will cover the following topics:
Renewable Sources of Energy
- Geothermal Energy (radioactive decay and initial heat of earth)
- Solar Energy (radiation from sun)
- Solar PV and Solar Thermal
- Biomass and Wastes
- Ocean Thermal
- Ocean Wave, Ocean Current
- Tidal Energy (gravitational pull of moon and earth’s rotation)
- Hydrogen Energy (from biomass and water)
Price: 10 USD
Tags: biodiesel, bioethanol, biofuels, CME, coconut metyl ester, cost, electricity, energy resources, energy sources, generator, history of electricity, power, power generation, power generation technologies, power generation technology, power supply, renewable energy, renewable energy sources, renewable sources of electricity, renewable sources of energy
The file (549 KB) will cover the following topics:
HISTORY OF POWER GENERATION
- 1878 – Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison independently invented the carbon filament that produced light from electricity – incandescent lamp.
- 1879 – Thomas Edison founded the electric company, his greatest achievement – “Edison Electric Light Station”.
- 1882 – Carl de Laval invented steam turbine that drove electric generators more efficiently than earlier reciprocating steam engines. Coal then oil was used.
- 1884 – Charles Parsons constructs the first practical steam turbine electric generator to be driven by fuel-burning power plants in the electric power industry.
- 1895 – Niagara Falls – world’s first large-scale central generating station transmitts power 20 miles away to Buffalo and it employed 2-phase AC techniques of Nikola Tesla.
- 1905 – Albert Einstein publishes his “Theory of Relativity” and the equation E = m c2, foundation of nuclear power.
- 1907 – a new material called tungsten was used to replace carbon strips of bamboo as filament in the incandescent lamps
Other inventions that used electricity – electric trams and railways for urban transport, telephone and telegraph, phonograph, radio and television, incandescent and fluorescent lighting, electric motors and electric heating, refrigeration and air conditioning, computers and electronics – accelerated the need for larger and reliable generating plants.
Price: 11 USD
The file (3.22 MB) will cover the following topics:
Electricity – most sophisticated form of energy in use in the world today
Primary way to meet growing demand – build power plants or repower old plants to raise capacity
Electricity is the flow of electrons (current) when an energy potential (voltage) is applied.
Generation of Electricity
- How is electricity generated?
- Three types of materials
- How does an electric field look?
- Electric energy potential
- Electric potential & current
- Right hand rule
- Electromotive force emf
- Electric motors
- Principle of electric generator
- How is mechanical energy produced?
Price: 64 USD
Fuel & Energy Technology Expert is Here
Marcial Ocampo, your favorite energy technology expert, is here to provide you latest information on:
1) energy and oil prices (international and domestic pump price calculation)
2) renewable energy and non-renewable energy and electricity
3) cost of power generation – capital and O&M cost
4) levelized cost of energy and electricity
5) Philippine energy and electricity demand and supply
6) project finance and financial modeling
7) power plant efficiency and performance
8) project feasibility studies for biofuels and power plant (market, technical, economic and financial)
Examples of Power Generation Technologies in commercial use are as follows:
Oil – Gas Thermal
Reciprocating / Piston Engine:
Small or High-Speed
Large or Slow Speed
Combined Cycle – Waste Heat Boiler
Natural Gas – Simple GT:
Humid Air Turbine (HAT)
Cascaded Humid Air Turbine (CHAT)
Heavy Frame GT
Natural Gas – Combined Cycle GT
Pulverized Coal PC
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC
Integrated Gasification Humid Air Turbine IGHAT
Direct Coal-Fired Combined Cycle DCCC
Supercritical & Ultra-Supercritical Coal Comb.
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), advanced
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR):
– Candu Reactor
High Temp. Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR)
Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)
– Pelton Turbine – 50-6,000 ft head
– Francis Turbine – 10-2,000 ft head
– Propeller Turbine – 10 – 300 ft head:
– Kaplan Turbine
Small / Mini
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) – Huntorf:
– Large CAES
– Small CAES
– Above Ground CAES
Utility Scale Batteries (USB):
– Lead acid
Superconduction Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
Dry Steam (Vapor)
Flashed Steam (Single, Double)
Petrothermal (Hot Dry Rock)
Thin film – Amorphous Silicon
Thin film – Indium Diselenide
High Efficiency Multi Junction (IHCPV)
Salt Pond (power + water)
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
Direct Methanol (DMFC)
Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
Solid Oxide-GT (SOFC-GT)
Co-firing with Coal
Biomass Gasification (BIGCC)
Municipal Waste Treatment
Landfill Gas (40 – 60% CH4)
Anaerobic Digestion Biogas (65% CH4)
Claude (open cycle)
Controlled Flash Evaporation (open)
Anderson (closed cycle)
Oscillating Water Column (OWC)
High Level Reservoir
Float or Pitching Devices
Wave Surge or Focusing (“tapchan”)
Modulated Single Pool w/ Pumped Hydro
Additional technologies provided by readers of this blog:
Waste Heat Recovery: (from Alan Belcher’s comments)
Steam Rankine Cycle (Recycled Energy Development, Inc.)
Organic Rankine Cycle (Ormat Technologies, Inc.)*
Low Temperature Brayton Cycle (Pegasus Energy Project, Inc.)
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