How to calculate overall thermal efficiency of combined cycle power plants – a sample CCGT presented

How to calculate overall thermal efficiency of combined cycle power plants – a sample CCGT presented

Calculating or predicting the overall performance of a combined cycle power plant, specifically a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant is sometimes difficult for most design engineers. Your favorite energy technology expert again comes to the rescue – Engineer Marcial T. Ocampo – has derived the following equation to guide the design engineer and project finance modeler or business development engineer in predicting the overall thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. More »

Is Advanced Clean Coal the Answer to our Global Power Problem?

Is Advanced Clean Coal Technology the Answer to our Global Power Problem?

Remaining Life of Fossil Fuels (oil, natural gas, coal)

Recent events have thrust lately renewed interest in “advanced clean coal” technologies to provide additional power generation capacity in view of dwindling and expensive oil supplies (remaining life 39 years), natural gas (61 years). World wide coal reserves are expected to last over 231 years (remaining life = reserves / extraction rate).

However, due to concerns arising from pollution (emission of sulfur as SO2, toxic ash and heavy metals) and climate change (emission of CO2 greenhouse gases), the utilization of coal for power generation has spurred researches leading to the development and commercialization of so called “advanced clean coal” technologies. More »

Large-Scale Project Finance Models

Large-Scale Project Finance Models:

  1. Oil Thermal Power Plant – 2,000 US$

  2. Pulverized Thermal Power Plant – 4,000 US$

  3. Advance Coal Thermal Power Plant – 6,000 US$

  4. Geothermal Power Plant – 8,000 US$

  5. Simple Gas Turbine Power Plant – 9,000 US$

  6. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant – 10,000 US$

  7. Energy Storage Power Plant – 12,000 US$*
  8. Solar Thermal Power Plant – 14,000 US$*
  9. Fuel Cells Power Plant – 16,000 US$*
  10. Ocean Thermal Power Plant – 18,000 US$*
  11. Ocean Wave Power Plant – 20,000 US$*
  12. Tidal Power Plant – 22,000 US$*
  13. Nuclear Power Plant – 30,000 US$*

*Please inquire about payment options directly to me.


1) Input (Assumption) Sheet

2) Report (Summary) Sheet

3) Project Cost Sheet (equipment cost, ocean freight, insurance, taxes & duties, brokerage & local shipping, erection & installation, land & right-of-way, project development & contract management, initial stocks & inventories, manpower mobilization & training, working capital, interest during construction, other capitalized expenses)

4) Construction Sheet (construction schedule, equity/loan drawdown, interest during construction)

5) Model Sheet (escalation of items, starting costs, capacity & degradation, heat rate & efficiency degradation, maintenance & overhaul scheduel, available hours, gross generation, plant use & net generation, transmission/distribution line constraints & losses, net electricity sales, revenue items, expense items, income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, project & equity IRR, project & equity payback, debt service cover ratio)

6) Depreciation Sheet (evolution of balance sheet accounts, working capital)

7) Loan Amortization Table (interest & principal repayment)

Small-Scale Project Finance Models

Small-Scale Project Finance Models:

  1. Diesel Genset Power Plant – 600 US$

  2. Biomass Power Plant – 800 US$

  3. Cogen Power Plant – 1,000 US$

  4. Hydro (Micro, Mini) Power Plant – 1,200 US$

  5. Solar PV Power Plant – 1,800 US$

  6. Wind Power Plant – 2,400 US$

  7. Biomass Gassifaction Power Plant / Anaerobic Digestion – 3,000 US$

  8. Hybrid Power Plant (Diesel, Biomass, Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro) – 1,000 US$

Simple Gas Turbine (GT)

The file (525 KB) will cover the following topics:

Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plants

  • 130 BC – Hero of Alexandria’s reaction steam turbine
  • 1550 – Leonardo da Vinci’s “smoke mill”
  • 1629 – Giovanni Branca’s impulse steam turbine
  • 1791 – John Barber’s patent for steam turbine – “gas was produced from heated coal, mixed with air, compressed and then burnt to produce a high speed jet that impinged on radial blades on a turbine wheel rim”.

Topics – Simple Gas Turbines

  • Gas Turbines, Its Uses and History
  • Aero-Derivative Gas Turbine Developments
  • Operating Principle of a Gas Turbine
  • Ideal & Non-Ideal Brayton Cycle, Its Efficiency
  • Effects of Varying Compression Ratio
  • Modifications to Improve Efficiency
  • Gas Turbine Fuels
  • Gas Turbine Technologies
  • Advantages, Disadvantages of GT
  • Environmental Impact, Risks of GT

Price: 44 USD

Pulverized Coal

The file (1.59 MB) will cover the following topics:


Coal is formed from plants by chemical and geological processes which occur over million of years.

First product of this process was peat (partially decomposed stems, twigs, bark), then transformed into lignite, bituminous, then anthracite.

Coal is the largest source of energy for power and other uses:

Primary Energy Electricity

World: 23%                        40%

US: 55%

Philippines: 13%                        38%

Topics – Traditional Coal Thermal

  • Coal Resource : Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Types of Coal and Reserves
  • Properties of Coal, Coal-Mixtures and Classification by Rank
  • Examples of Pulverized Coal Boilers & Plants
  • Basic Principle of Pulverized Coal Thermal Plant
  • Coal Mining, Preparation, Transport, Storage, Pulverization & Firing
  • Pollution Control Technologies in Coal Plants
  • Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants
  • Cost of Coal-Fired Plants and Treatment (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Coal Plants in the Philippines
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 64 USD

Piston Engines

The file (138 KB) will cover the following topics:

Piston or Reciprocating Engines

4-Stroke medium speed diesel engines are mainly used for power generation on small islands, in remote areas and for industrial purposes. Medium speed technology is competitive for intermediate and base load power plants up to 200 MW: high levels of reliability and availability, rapid construction and installation, competitive capital cost and delivery times, and total efficiency approaching 90% for CHP plants.

Topics – Piston Engine

  • Piston Engine, Its Uses, Fuels
  • Types of Diesel Engines and Applications
  • Compression Ratio and Efficiency of Engines
  • Turbo-Charging of Engines
  • Engine Heat Balance
  • Basic Engine Construction & Support Systems
  • Cost of Diesel Power
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 30 USD

Oil Thermal

The file (1.21 MB) will cover the following topics:

Oil Thermal Energy

Rock oil” was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859 by a man drilling for water

Crude oil accounts for 40% of energy use worldwide: 3% of power comes from oil, 16% from natural gas.

High energy density, 43 MJ/kg (18,600 Btu/lb), and relatively clean burning, versatile.

Topics – Oil Thermal

  • Oil & Gas Resource: Origin, Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Properties of Liquid Fuels, Fuel Oils and Natural Gas
  • Basic Principle of Oil-Gas Thermal Plant
  • Ideal and Modified Rankine (Steam) Cycle Efficiency, Heat Rates
  • Oil-Gas Burners (Circular, S-type, Reduced NOx)
  • Reducing NOx Emissions (FGR, LEA, 2-stage air, Re-burning)
  • Emissions from Power Plants
  • Pollution Control Technologies used in Power Generation
  • Cost of Power Generation (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Oil-Thermal and Diesel Plants in the Philippines
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 42 USD

Fuel Properties

The file (220 KB) will cover the following topics:


  • Gross/Higher and Net/Lower Heating Value
  • Ultimate Analysis
  • Proximate Analysis
  • Fly Ash Analysis
  • Hardgrove Grindability Index
  • Density
  • Viscosity
  • Flash Point and Pour Point
  • Metal Content

Price: 40 USD

Fuel Cells

The file (566 KB) will cover the following topics:


Fuel Cell: an electrochemical device, closely related to the battery, that can generate electricity from hydrogen, which in turn can be extracted from natural gas or other hydrocarbon gases through a chemical process called reforming.

Topics – Fuel Cells

  • Fuel Cells, Its Uses and History
  • Fuel Cell Principle, Characteristics, Operating Conditions
  • Fuel Cell Concept for Power, Heat & Water
  • Balance of Plant Equipment
  • Fuel Cell Process Diagram, Hydrogen Gas Reformation
  • Types of Fuel Cells (AFC, PAFC, PEM, MCFC, SOFC)
  • Advanced Fuel Cell Technologies (CHP, Hybrid FC-GT-IGCC)
  • Cost of Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Cell Applications, Advantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

History of Fuel Cel

  • Hydrolysis – if an electrical voltage is applied to water by placing two electrodes into the liquid and attaching a battery to them, the voltage induces a chemical reaction: hydrogen is produced at one electrode and oxygen at the other
  • 1839 – Sir William Grove observed that the process known as “hydrolysis” can also go backwards – hydrogen will react at one electrode and oxygen at the other producing water and an electrical voltage between the electrodes. It was only a century later that Francis Bacon began to develop practical fuel cells.
  • 1950s – Pratt and Whitney (now United Technologies) licensed Bacon’s technology and developed it for the US space program. The Gemini, Apollo and space shuttle program all used fuel cells to generate electricity and produce drinking water on-board by just bringing hydrogen fuel and oxygen with them.

Fuel Cell Principle

  • If an electrical voltage is applied on water, by placing two electrodes into the liquid and attaching a DC battery to them, the voltage induces a chemical reaction; hydrogen and oxygen is produced at each electrode:

H2O + DC voltage è H2 + O2

  • In 1839, Sir William Grove observed this process, known as hydrolysis, can also go backwards – reversible. Hydrogen will react at one electrode and oxygen at the other, producing water and DC electrical voltage between the electrodes.
  • During reverse hydrolysis, hydrogen would act at one electrode and oxygen at the other, producing water, heat and electrical voltage (DC) between the electrodes.

Fuel (H2) + O2 + platinum catalyst è H20 + DC voltage

Fuel Cell Characteristics

  • Operates as a continuous battery – continuous fueling
  • Never needs recharging
  • Based on reverse hydrolysis – converts hydrogen and oxygen into water and electricity
  • Current depends on electrode area
  • Voltage depends on materials of construction, typically less than 1 volt.

Balance of Plant Equipment

  • Power-conditioning equipment needed are expensive
  • Fuel processing comprises a large part of cost and project development.
  • The front-end processing and fuel cell technology is affected by the fuel and application: Hydrogen, Natural gas, Methanol, Gasoline, Biomass, Coal

Price: 30 USD

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

The file (4.26 MB) will cover the following topics:

Combined Cycle GT (CCGT)

GTs have at best efficiencies from 35% to 42%. Almost 60% of the fuel energy is wasted in the turbine exhaust of a GT. Capturing this waste heat in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is the basis of the combined cycle (Brayton + Rankine). The HRSG produces steam that drives a turbo-generator to produce additional power.

Topics – Combined Cycle GT

  • Operating Principle of a Combined Cycle GT
  • Combined Brayton + Rankine Cycles
  • Comparison of Various CCGT Configurations
  • CCGT (Gas vs Liquid Firing)
  • CCGT Energy Balance
  • Examples of Gas Turbine Technologies
  • Cost of GT Technologies
  • GT and CCGT Plants in the Philippines
  • Advantages, Disadvantages of CCGT
  • Environmental Impact, Risks of CCGT

Price: 80 USD

Advanced Coal-Burning Power Plant Technology

This file (1.03 MB) will cover the following topics:


Traditional coal-fired power plant suffers from two primary drawbacks:

  • overall thermal efficiency limited
  • major source of pollution

There are strategies to reduce levels of pollution immediately in traditional plants.

However, very little can be done to raise its efficiency, being limited by thermodynamic constraints.

Efficiency of 49-50% feasible within 20 years.
Price: 42 USD