Marcial Ocampo – the Energy Technology Expert (now available for projects and consultancy or fixed employment)

November 1st, 2012 Posted in energy technology expert

Marcial Ocampo – the Energy Technology Expert (now available for projects and consultancy or fixed employment)

Today, at 2pm on December 6, 2012, the Philippine Department of Energy (DOE) and the Energy Management Association of the Philippines (ENMAP now ENPAP) will confer on Marcial a SPECIAL RECOGNITION AWARD for his significant contributions to goals and achievements of the energy conservation (ENERCON) and energy efficiency initiatives of the government and private sector. The venue of the awards giving is the MERALCO Multi-Purpose Hall. Please be there my friends at the DOE, PNOC, PBR, PETRON, PETRONAS PHIL, DOST, FIRST GEN, UNDP, ADB and WB-IFC.

Marcial T. Ocampo is a Chemical Engineer and placed 2nd place during the 1973 Chemical Engineering Board Examination. Marcial also pursued advanced studies when he finished his M.S. Combustion and Energy from University of Leeds, UK.

His first thesis project was the “Production of Paper from Sugar-Cane Bagasse” for his B.S. Chemical Engineering degree from the University of the Philippines in 1973, while his second thesis project in 1978 from the same university was the “The Assimilative Capacity of Some Rivers in the Philippines, an LP Model” for his M.S. Chemical Engineering degree under the tutelage of Professor Dr. Filemon A. Uriarte, Jr. His third thesis project in UK was “The Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Methanol-Fueled Spark Ignition Engine” in 1980.

After finishing his BS degree, Marcial enrolled for his MS degree and at the same time joined the faculty of the UP College of Engineering where he lectured on various subjects like Engineering Drawing, Dynamics of Particle in Motion, Analytical Solutions to Mathematical Problems, Numerical Solutions to Differential Equations Using Digital Computers, and Fortran Computer Programming. He received his salary as Lecturer and enjoyed free tuition for his MS degree being part of the Engineering College faculty.

Marcial later worked in the private sector as Tide Detergent Brand Manager where he supervised technical testing as well as actual market washing tests of the reference Tide formulation against competing brand formulations in hard water areas such as La Union, with the end objective of obtaining comparative performance and price data to determine overall cost-effectiveness (kg soap used per kg of dry laundry, Peso per kg dry laundry) of various detergent brands, including proposed Tide formulation changes, in actual washing conditions throughout the country, from soft to medium to hard water locations.

In order to obtain actual river quality data for his MS thesis, Marcial joined the Projects and Planning Development Office (PPDO) of the Department of Public Works, Transportation and Communications (DPWTC) as a Research Associate. He was responsible for Water Quality Modeling and monitoring of the Pampanga River using the “Streeter-Phelps Oxygen Sag Curve Equation”, and the data obtained on stream flow velocity, oxygen and BOD levels were used in calibrating the Streeter-Phelps equation to obtain its constants which is the problem his MS thesis would like to address.

Marcial then joined the Engineering and Consultancy Services department of the Economic and Development Foundation (EDF) as Assistant Consultant to conduct a NEDA study on “Water Quality Modeling of the Laguna Lake and The Maximum Assimilative Capacity of Philippine Rivers (an LP Model)” for determining maximum BOD load to meet minimum DO levels. The LP model used the constants derived for the Streeter-Phelps equation obtained at DPWTC.

Determining the maximum BOD point source loads at major cities along the river route that could be absorbed biologically by the various river systems in the country without depleting oxygen levels to desired minimum concentrations to protect marine life is a policy tool for dispersing industries throughout the country in an environmentally sustainable manner.

After his initial experience with environmental research and river quality modeling, Marcial joined an energy service company (Ralph M. Parsons) to provide geothermal steam piping thermal stress analysis in order to design the pipe lengths for bends and straight runs so that geothermal piping can effectively absorb thermal expansions safely without damaging joints made of welds and flanges. He used a business computer with no scientific functions by applying Taylor Series Expansion formulas to calculate sine, cosine and other trigonometric and logarithmic functions.

With his string of academic, market testing of detergents, environmental quality modeling and energy (geothermal piping stress analysis) background, Marcial was hired by the PNOC to be the Section Chief of the Transport, Buildings and Machineries Section of the Conservation Division of the Bureau of Energy Utilization (BEU) of the Ministry of Energy (MOE) for the period 1978-1986 during the time of Secretary Geronimo Z. Velasco. The BEU has headed then by the PNOC Logistics Vice President Orlando L. Galang.

Marcial led this section in the conduct of preliminary and detailed energy audits of such commercial and industrial establishments, including sugar, steel, cement and power generation industries, using equipment and expertise provided by UNDP. Industrial Energy Conservation and Efficiency Experts from Australia (BHP, National Gas) trained the young engineers of the entire sections under the Conservation Division in the conduct of energy audits, preparation of audit reports, and codifying the experiences and procedures in handbooks and manuals such as “How to Conduct an Energy Audit in Industrial, Transport, Commercial and Residential Sectors, Volume II No. 1” and “Energy Conservation Considerations in Lighting and Air Conditioning Systems, Volume II No. 2”. The UNDP team was headed by Chief Technical Adviser in the person of Dr. P. R. Srinivasan.

This was the golden age of energy conservation and energy efficiency interventions in the country.  The impetus towards energy use efficiency was provided by the oil crisis brought about by tensions in the Middle East that erupted into an actual shooting war, leading to an oil embargo and oil supply disruptions with oil price spikes.

Thus, the Enercon Movement was founded at this time to mitigate the impact of an oil and energy crisis. From a humble beginning of a few staff at the Conservation Division headed then by its Division Chief Mr. Benjamin P. Lim, Industry and Power Section Chief Mr. Wilfredo S. Toledo and staff of the Information and Education section, this Technical Working Group of the Enercon Movement expanded to include representatives from power generation and electric distribution utilities and electric cooperatives. I distinctly remember conducting such meetings at the upscale restaurant at the top floor of the Meralco Building – the Light House. I hope it still serves good food, because our meetings were well attended because of the job of selecting the current year’s distinguished Energy Managers and Sectoral Awardees for Industry, Power, Transport, and Commercial Establishments. The BEU started then collecting quarterly and annual energy consumption reports, production statistics, and the planned and implemented energy conservation (enercon) measures of respondent companies. The job of the Enercon TWG meeting at the Light House is to select and nominate candidates for the Energy Manager and Industry/establishment categories.

Energy Managers and industries/establishments that consistently won awards were then conferred Hall of Fame awards as recognition for having institutionalized the art of energy management in their place of work.

Later on, after the EDSA revolution, the Ministry of Energy was abolished, became an Office of Energy Affairs, and the country plunged into darkness. The power crisis crippled the national and local economies with 4-8 hours of rotating darkness. The Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) was about to be fueled with nuclear pellets, but a political decision was made not to energize and operate it. The country thus were deprived of an economical power source (less than P2.50 per kWh), but also resulted in power supply deficiency, inefficiency and inability to meet peak demands. The BNPP was supposed to operate flat out, and when power was in excess, it would use the excess power to pump back the Laguna Lake water back into Lake Caliraya, and later released during mid-day and night-time peak hours. With the cheap BNPP silenced forever, the Caliraya Hydro Complex is now powered by expensive geothermal, coal and occasional natural gas CCGT plants to pump water back into Lake Caliraya for use during the next peak demand events.

With no new plants to replace the decommissioned BNPP, the economic growth arising from a free democracy soon created higher power demands. To supply this power deficit, the government during the term of Pres. Fidel V. Ramos, who later revived the Department of Energy, embarked on a fast and furious construction of oil-based simple cycle gas turbine power plants of low efficiency (33%) which included take-of-pay provisions in order to entice private power investors to come in. The oil industry was also deregulated to remove government subsidy on the OPSF which was approaching 50% of the country’s budget deficit. The debt of the NAPOCOR which ballooned with the decommissioning of the BNPP (the country paid loan amortization to Westinghouse without collecting any revenue from a single kWh generated) and contributed further to the budget deficit and foreign debt of the country.

The Philippines was fast approaching financial meltdown and the foreign exchange rate was fast deteriorating from P19 in 1985 to P26 by 1996. The problems arising from the OPSF subsidy and the NAPOCOR debt, together with the 1996 Asian Financial Crisis, was the last straw that pushed the country’s leaders to do the unimaginable. The country’s economic managers and supported by political will, decided to devalue the Philippine peso from P26-P52 to a US dollar to immediately arrest capital flight and stabilize the economy.

The problem in the oil and power sector now has spread to the entire economy. Domestic and imported prices of goods escalated due to the Peso devaluation. Many companies and families became economically and socially dislocated.

The country has to swallow the bitter pill – devalue, deregulate oil prices, and privatize the NAPOCOR through the EPIRA so that its debt will be transferred to PSALM who shall then collect a universal levy from all consumers (Filipinos and foreigners) to liquidate its debt over 25 years at a rate determined from its electricity sales. Unlike before, only taxpayers shouldered the repayment of the debt. With EPIRA, foreigners as users of electricity will also contribute to liquidating the debt transferred to PSALM. This saved the day for the country from financial meltdown. Now looking back today in 2012 to where we were in 1996, the country was very fortunate to have put its economic house in good order. We avoided the “Greek Melt Down” and the difficulties that huge subsidies and inappropriate taxation bring to the PIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Greece, Spain) now suffering deep economic recession, high employment and enormous public debt.

Devaluation, deregulation and privatization made imported goods, oil supplies and energy sources expensive, but it also encouraged energy conservation (minimize wasteful and unproductive use), raised energy efficiency (new processes, new procedures and new equipment that consumed less energy) and developed indigenous energy sources (Malampaya natural gas, geothermal steam, hydro power) and renewable energy (wind farms, solar PV farms, mini-hydro, biomass, biogas, municipal solid waste gasification to power). Solving the 3 problems with the right solutions ensured that the problems do not spread to the entire economy.

After the demise of the MOE, Marcial was transferred to the Petron Bataan Refinery (PBR) at Limay, Bataan. He set up the Computer Systems Group of the refinery and initiated the computerization of its various functions such as crude supply, refinery operations, product blending, power and steam generation (Refinery LP Modeling with Power and Steam Utilities), and product distribution (Transport LP Modeling from Refinery to the Various Bulk Plants). The oil tankage strapping table and maintenance records were also computerized by his group.

Later on, after 5-years refinery duty, Marcial was recalled to the Market Planning & Development Department (MPDD) where he was involved in the overall logistics planning, computerization and other competitive and marketing studies. He revived the use of the Transportation LP Model of Petron for determining the optimal milk-run route and vessel assignment to resupply the company’s nationwide depot system on time to avoid costly product run-outs, and doing this at the least cost by assigning the most appropriate vessel to do the job.

Marcial then took stock of where he was and applied for early retirement under the company’s manpower reduction program. He went into business – computer sales, software development, feed-mix optimization, petroleum product blending optimization and computerized general ledger and accounting systems. When Orlando Galang retired from PNOC and joined Petronas Energy Philippines, Inc., he invited 3 former Petron/PNOC/MOE staff to join him (Teddy Reyes, Mike Acosta and Marcial Ocampo) to organize and operate the newly formed white product, black product and LPG importation, distribution and marketing company based in Iligan City. Marcial was in charge of the Data Processing and updating the company’s Business  Model (a project finance model for an oil company engaged in importation, storage, transshipment, and retail marketing of white and black products and LPG) and preparation of annual business plans. With the 1996 Asian Oil Crisis, however, additional investments from Petronas Malaysia came to an end and Marcial resigned and went back to his private business.

Later on, he met again incoming DOST Secretary Dr. Filemon A. Uriarte, Jr. at the Bahay Alumni and was invited in Nov 1999 to take the post of Executive Director of the Philippine Council for Industry and Energy Research & Development of the Department of Science and Technology (PCIERD-DOST). With the impending impeachment of then Pres. Joseph Estrada, both Dr. Uriarte and Marcial opted to resign in Feb 2001 from their posts as a matter of personal delicadeza.

Fortunately, Marcial was recommended by Dr. Uriarte to join the First Generation Corporation of the Lopez Group as Senior Technical Services Manager under VP Daniel H. Valeriano. He served the company in various capacities such as conducting power generation technology training courses for company staff, assisting in ISO audits, management audits of the CCGT power plants operated by First Gen, and technical due diligence of coal-fired, geothermal and hydro power companies for acquisition from PSALM. He also prepared project finance models to determine the asset purchase price of the acquired facility after including environmental and energy efficient technologies that would meet future environmental standards and reduce fuel costs, leading to a higher valuation of the asset, and hopefully winning the bid.

Marcial left First Gen in Nov 2006 and put up his own pension loan and lending investor company with his own savings and equity from friends. Putting in place his previously developed general ledger and accounting system, Marcial was still able to conduct his first love – providing consultancy services in power generation technology selection, renewable energy resource assessment, climate change, process auditing and optimization, business development and feasibility study preparation.

Marcial continues to prepare feasibility studies that include provision for the latest energy-efficient practices, equipment and systems. He conducts renewable energy resource assessment for wind power using 3-TIER/NREL wind data, solar PV and mini-hydro systems, including hybrid combinations with diesel gensets to ensure 24/7 operation that is needed in sustainable remote area electricity service in NPC-SPUG areas.

Marcial assisted the DOE-WB in determining the viability of a biomass-diesel genset hybrid at Rio Tuba, Palawan of the venture capitalist PowerSource, the first qualified third party (QTP) investor of the DOE. The QTP program of the government ensures that no remote and unviable service area covered by a franchised utility remain un-served since such area will be given up and opened up to QTP investors. Sustainable 24/7 operation in rural areas was made possible by the use of biomass-diesel hybrid system that supplied power to a rural community that provided a minimum system load due to the thermostat on-and-off operation of refrigerators and chillers owned by rural families purchased using cheap credit from Emilio S. Lim equipment financing company. Thus, remote and rural electricity service advanced from simple lighting, TV and Radio entertainment, electric fan cooling, clothes ironing and small-scale electric welding to commercial applications such as commercial air-conditioning in small hotel inns and ice plants for freezing the commercial fish catch of the fishermen cooperatives.

With this first successful stint at a WB project, Marcial then got a second project on Wind-Diesel Hybrid project design and project document preparation for UNDP-Indonesia in Aug 2010. This was followed by a mid-term review (Dec 2010) and final term (Nov 2011) evaluation of a Fuel Cell Bus Phase II project of UNDP-China in Beijing and Shanghai.

Another UNDP-India project on Biomass Power Barrier Removal Project was evaluated at mid-term by Marcial in April 2011 to be followed by a mid-term review at Dec 2011 of UNDP-China’s project on the Second National Communication (SNC) of China to the UNFCCC on its GHG emission inventory and mitigation action plan.

Marcial’s expertise for energy conservation and efficiency was recognized when Hitachi-Singapore engaged him to prepare the business model and financial model for setting up a tri-generation project (power, process heat, space cooling) for a Singapore government’s data center which will house and provide backup services at Tier-3 security level the precious and irreplaceable data of major banks and companies throughout the world in Singapore. The model recommended what level of pricing for electricity, heat and cooling would be collected for connecting the company to the data servers and for monthly fixed and variable charges to the data storage customers.

Last Jan 2012, Marcial assisted a Baastel Consultant in evaluating the ESMAP-WB project on effectiveness of renewable energy interventions in the Philippines and in other countries.

As an individual, Marcial has all been in the forefront of energy policy initiatives, having been a member of the 2008 Oil Crisis Committee headed by Executive Sec. Ermita and this year’s 2012 Independent Oil Price Review Committee chaired by Dr. Benjamin Diokno of the UP School of Economics. Marcial provided his expertise in calculating the domestic pump price of various oil products (gasoline, diesel, LPG, kerosene, fuel oil, etc.) by proposing a two-step price formula that determines first the duty paid landed cost of the oil product, and blending the domestic costs such as refining, marketing, oil company profit, transshipment, pipeline, depot operation, biofuels addition, hauling and dealer’s margin to arrive at the final end-user pump price. (Diesel is 5% CME and 95 % Petroleum Diesel while Gasoline is 10% ETHANOL and 90% Petroleum Gasoline).

Currently this Sep 2012, Marcial is doing a terminal evaluation of a UNDP-India project on South India Small Sector Tea Processing in South India that provided energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy interventions to assist the tea industry cope with rising energy and labor costs and quality issues to ensure their long-term competitiveness and sustainability in providing foreign currency incomes and rural employment.

Marcial is also assisting Dr. Uriarte’s Test Consultants in preparing a detailed feasibility study (FS) for a 2×100 MW coal-fired power plant in Negros Island this Oct 2012. Previously, Marcial prepared 3 FS for CFB coal-fired power plants (2×50 MW Isabela, 2×70 MW Agusan del Sur, 2×50 MW Zamboanga Sibugay), 1 FS for a 2×250 MW CCGT natural gas fired anchor load of BATMAN-1 natural gas pipeline.

An LNG market study for Southern Luzon to tap the power sector, industry, commercial, transport and residential markets is also underway this Nov 2012. This study is in preparation for the eventual depletion of the Malampaya natural gas reserves which is expected to come 2022-2023 and result in a loss of 20% of the country’s MW capacity and 30% of MWh energy demand.

To-date, Marcial has prepared pre-feasibility studies and project finance models for several wind sites in Indonesia as well as seven (7) sites in the Philippines (Ilog, Negros Occidental Province; Bayawan, Pamplona, Tanjay and Siaton, Negros Oriental Province; Sagada, Mt. Province; and Bulalacao, Oriental Mindoro Province).

He also prepared a project finance model and provided inputs for the bank info memo for a solar PV in two sites in Bataan Province.

Last January 2010, Marcial also prepared models for calculating the feed-in-tariff for renewable energy resources such as wind, solar PV, biomass, mini-hydro and ocean thermal energy conversion in the Philippines and presented it at Subic International Hotel in a seminar workshop organized by Germany’s GTZ and Philippine DOE and NREB for the benefit of the Renewable Energy Alliance members.

To address the issue of high electricity prices, Marcial has prepared on optimal load dispatch LP model for the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao grids. Given electricity demand, capacity factor of generating plant, minimum stable load and maximum dependable capacity, fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency (or plant heat rate for fossil-fired power plants), variable and fixed operating costs, regulatory costs, capital cost and economic life (to get annualized capital cost), type of plant (renewable, fossil), the LP model will dispatch the power plants to minimize the overall generation cost of the grid given constraints on minimum stable load, maximum dependable capacity, electricity demand, and desired renewable energy contribution (green portfolio).

To ensure the safety of residents, establishments and infrastructures downstream of large storage power dams such as San Roque, Marcial assisted the Ad Hoc Committee on Dam Safety chaired by Cong. Mark Cojuangco in preparing an excel model that predicts dam elevation and discharge rate given the rainfall over the dam watershed, inflows from upstream rivers/dams, discharge for power generation and irrigation, and discharge rate via the spillway. In this manner, pre-emptive discharge several days in advance could be made in response to an incoming typhoon in order to provide the dam with sufficient ullage (void capacity) to absorb the incoming rainfall, so as not to aggravate flooding in downstream areas that already has received excessive rainfall. It will also help protect the dam from collapsing if it is over-topped at the height of the storm. The dam discharge model has predicted accurately the resulting dam elevation and spillway discharge during the Typhoon “Ondoy” and “Peping” given the actual rainfall, inflows, starting elevation and water releases for power generation and irrigation.

Marcial Ocampo continues to serve his country well by providing his expertise to the DOE in pricing and supply issues, to private companies in the country on renewable energy development and fossil-powered projects that ensures sufficient power capacity to meet future demand, and international development organizations such as WB, UNDP and ADB on energy, climate change and renewable energy.

Mobile +63-915-606-7949 (Globe)

Mobile +63-922-866-9598 (Suncel)

Res. Tel.  +63-2-931-3713 (PLDT)

Ofc. Tel./Fax +63-2-932-5530 (PLDT)



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