ADV Biomass Direct Combustion Model.xls

June 24th, 2012 Posted in renewable energy

ADV Biomass Direct Combustion Model.xls

Direct combustion of biomass system (furnace, boiler, steam turbine, generator) is carried out mostly in the countryside where biomass is abundant from agricultural activity such as paddy rice, corn fields, cotton fields, sugar cane fields, tree plantation and municipal solid waste (MSW). A 50-km radius of agricultural land can support around 6-12 MW of biomass power plant as in the case of India.

This advanced feed-in-tariff model for biomass direct combustion makes use of the basic assumptions of the country’s RE regulator for rated capacity (1 x 8.3 MW), capacity factor (80%), plant own use (10%), and 0.20% plant degradation rate.

It assumes equipment cost (FOB $/kW), ocean insurance and freight (4.5%), balance of plant (21%), G&A cost ($/year), O&M cost ($/kW/year), spare parts replacement cost ($/unit/year), substation and transmission line cost ($/km) and distance (km), access road cost ($/km) and distance (km), 15% project development cost, 12% VAT, 11% working capital and 4% contingency. VAT recovery is 70% on the 5th year. Days receivable and payable are 30 days.

Construction period is 24 months while operating period is 20 years. Cost of capital is 16% p.a. for 30% equity and 10% p.a. for 70% debt.

Exchange rate is 44.00 PhP/US$.

Incentives provided by the RE Law is applied such as the 7 years income tax holiday, after which a 10% income tax is applied. Property tax of 1.5% applied on 80% of book value. Local business tax is 1% of revenues while DOE 1-94 contribution is 0.01 PhP/kWh sold.

It also assumes an average biomass thermal efficiency of 27%, biomass fuel cost of 1,297 PhP/mt and gross heating value of 4,000 Btu/lb.

To order, pay and download this model, follow this link:

The summary worksheet is shown below:


Project   Site Name & Location Direct Combustion
Renewable Energy Source Biomass
Hours per Year 8760
  Construction Period (from FC) (months) 24
  Operating Period (Yrs from COD) 20
  Yrs from base year CPI & Forex (2009)   for FIT 4
  Yrs from base year CPI (2011) for CAPEX 1
  Yrs from base year CPI (2011) for OPEX 3
Construction Sources and   Uses of Funds, $000
  Uses of Fund:
    EPC (Equipment, Balance of Plant,   Transport, Access Roads) $16,029
    Transmission Line Interconnection   Facility $42
    Sub-Station Facility $818
    Development & Other Costs $2,627
    Construction Contingency $782
    Value Added Tax $1,425
    Financing Costs $2,022
    Initial Working Capital $1,793
  Total Uses of Fund $25,536
  Sources of Fund:
    Debt $17,875
    Equity $7,661
  Total Sources of Fund $25,536
  Construction Unit Costs (US$/kW):
    EPC Cost $1,931
    Plant Cost (Excluding VAT, Financing,   Working Capital) $2,445
    All-in Project Cost $3,077
Model Check:
Balance Sheet     OK
Foreign Debt Amorization     OK
Local Debt Amortization     OK
Depreciation     OK
Sources and Uses of   Funds     OK
Debt-to-Equity Ratio     OK
Base Years
  Base year CPI & Forex for FiT 2009
  Base year CPI for CAPEX 2011
  Base year CPI for OPEX 2011
Commercial Operating Date 2013


Technical and EPC   Assumptions
Unit Capacity of Plant   (MW/unit) 8.300
No. of Units (unit) 1.0
Gross Installed Capacity   (MW) 8.30
Plant Availability Factor, % 84.23%
Guaranteed Efficiency   Factor, % 95.00%
Allowance for losses & own use, % 10.00%
Net Capacity Factor after   losses & own use, % 72.02%
Net Electrical Output (MWh   in 1st Year) 52,365
Plant Degration, % p.a.   (1-20 Yrs) 0.20%
              % LC
Equipment Cost ex BOP,   Transport ($000/MW) $1,500.00 11.4%
Insurance, Ocean Freight,   Local Transport 4.5% 100.0%
Balance of Plant (BOP), % of   Equipment Cost 21.0% 100.0%
Transmission Line Distance   (km) 1.00
T/L Cost per km, 69 kV   ($000/km) $40.00 100.0%
Switchyard &   Transformers ($000) $786.21 100.0%
Access Roads ($000/km) $181.82 100.0%
Distance of Access Road (km) 1.00
Dev’t & Other Costs   (land, permits, etc) (% of EPC) 15.0% 100.0%
VAT on importation (70%   recoverable) 12% 100.0%
Initial Working Capital (%   of EPC) 11.0% 100.0%
Contingency (% of Total   Cost) 4.0% 50.0%
Operating Assumptions- NPV 63,879     Equity IRR
  Feed-in-Tariff (PhP/kWh) – FIT 7.00 18.44%
  Duration of FiT (Yrs) 20     Project IRR
  Tariff post FiT period (PhP/kWh) 7.00 14.33%
  FiT using Asset Base Methodology (PhP/kWh) 8.13
  Annual CER Volume (tCO2e/year) and $/tCO2e                – $5.00
  O&M Cost ($000/unit/year) $1,150.00
  Spare Parts, Tools & Equipment   ($000/MW/yr) $1.00
  O&M + Spares as % of EPC, T/L, S/S 6.86%
  Refurbishment Cost (% of EPC) 30%
  Timing of Refurbishment (Year from COD) 10
  G&A ($000/year) $1
  Fuel Cost (switch for Biomass: 1=yes, 0=no) 1
    Average Fuel Cost (PhP/mt)       1,297.00
    Fuel Rate (kWh/mt)         700.12
    Average Fuel Consumption (mt/year)         83,947
    Average Unit Cost of Fuel (PhP/kWh)           3.137
  Days Receivable & Payable 30 30
  VAT Recovery 70%
  Timing of VAT recovery (Yrs after COD) 5
Gross   Heating Value 4,000   Btu/lb
2.2046   lb/kg
1000   kg/MT
8,818,400   Btu/MT
Efficiency,   % 27.09%   of GHV
Plant Heat   Rate 3600   kJ/kWh
1.05506   kJ/Btu
3,412   Btu/kWh
12,596   Btu/kWh
Fuel Rate 700   kWh/MT
Cost of Fuel 1,297   PhP/MT
700   kWh/MT
          1.853   PhP/kWh
Density 1000   kg/MT
Cost per kg 1.297   PhP/kg


Debt and Equity Assumptions
Local/Foreign Capital Mix:
  Local Capital 50.0%
  Foreign Capital 50.0%
  Local & Foreign Upfront & Financing   Fees 2.00%
  Local & Foreign Commitment Fees 0.50%
  Local All-in Interest Rate excluding tax 10.00%
  Local Debt Payment Period (from end of GP)   (Yrs) 10
  Foreign All-in Interest Rate excluding tax 8.00%
  Foreign Debt Payment Period (from end of   GP) (Yrs) 10
  Local and Foreign Grace Period from COD   (months) 6
  Local and Foreign debt Service Reserve   (months) 6
  Debt Ratio 70%
  Total Local Debt ($000) – 30% $5,107
  Total Foreign Debt ($000) – 70% $12,768
    Total Debt Amount ($000) $17,875
Equity: 16%
  Equity Ratio 30%
  Equit Investment $7,661
  Cost of Equity (Onshore Equity IRR) –   Nominal 18.4%
  Cost of Equity (Onshore Equity IRR) – Real 13.9%
WACC pre-tax 12.1%
WACC after-tax 10.9%
Tax Assumptions
  Income Tax Holiday (Yrs) 7
  Income Tax Rate % (after ITH) 10%
  Property tax (from COD) 1.5%
  Property tax valuation rate (% of NBV) 80%
  Local Business Tax 1.0%
  Government Share (from COD) 0.0%
  ER 1-94 Contribution (PhP/kWh) 0.01
  Withholding Tax on Interest (Foreign   Currency) – WHT 10%
  Gross Receipts Tax on Interest (Local Currency) – GRT 5%
Economic Assumptions
  Base Foreign Exchange Rate (PhP/US$) – 2009 47.8125
  Forward Fixed Exchange Rate (2011) 44.0000
  Base Local CPI – 2009 160.00
  Annual Local CPI 4.0%
  Annual US CPI 2.0%
  Annual Peso Depreciation Rate 2.0%



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