Solar + Energy Storage = Future of Mankind

September 10th, 2017 No Comments   Posted in solar energy storage

Solar + Energy Storage = Future of Mankind

I am sharing this earth-shaking article from ENERGY CENTRAL.

The Saharan Desert is poised to provide limitless power to the whole of EUROPE.

Here in the Philippines, the local pioneer is SOLAR PHILIPPINES headed by the young and energetic Mr. Leandro Leviste.

Likewise, electric vehicles (EVs) will dominate the global market by 2030-2040 as more global car manufacturers shift completely from petrol to petrol-electric hybrid to pure electric vehicles with grid electricity coming from renewable energy and off-peak solar photo voltaic (solar PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) that will provide base-load generation thru large scale storage batteries (lithium ion, vanadium). Electric vehicles can now travel from 200-400 km per charge and is expected to rise as battery technology improves further.

It looks now that solar energy is poised to replace the sunset fossil oil and coal-fired power generation in many places of the world such as USA, China and Europe.

The growth trend in both the energy storage market and the solar market puts solar-plus-storage in a market sweet spot. IMS Research indicates that the market for storing power from solar panels will grow to $19 billion by the end of this year.

Energy storage installation is expected to expand rapidly from 6 gigawatts in 2017 to more than 40 gigawatts by 2022 according to the Energy Storage Association, and the industry is expected to be worth nearly $11 billion by 2022. The solar industry has also experienced a boom as the United States solar market added 2,044 megawatts of new capacity in the first quarter of 2017.

More and more solar-plus-storage projects are starting all over the U.S., largely due to the fact that lithium-ion prices are dropping and customers now feel more comfortable with the technology. Thus, according to GreenTech Media, energy storage has become the “Darling of the Solar Industry.” The main benefit of solar-plus-storage is its ability to maximize the benefits of intermittent resources such as solar and wind power.

Residential + Solar + Storage

Homeowners benefit from solar-plus-storage because it saves them more money than either system can by themselves, and it reduces their carbon footprint that much more as well. As prices drop, more residential customers will install solar-plus-storage systems in their homes to take advantage of these benefits. Residential energy storage is expected to growth exponentially from 95 megawatts in 2016 to 3,773 megawatts by 2025.

The installed price of residential solar-plus-storage systems has already dropped 25 to 30 percent over the last two to three years, according to Ravi Manghani, director of energy storage for GTM Research. In addition, he says that consumers can realize additional cost reductions when they take advantage of state and federal incentives.

Utilities + Solar + Storage

Solar-plus-storage can make utilities more productive and help them maximize revenues. For example, demand for electricity can increase when consumers utilize solar-plus-storage technology. This demand reduces the need for new fossil fuel facilities, leading to an environmental benefit as well.

In addition, utilities can contract with their customers to draw power from their batteries when the grid needs it, thus lowering energy costs for all stakeholders and protecting against the environmental consequences of burning more fossil fuels to generate energy. More utilities will start to take advantage of solar-plus-storage as prices for utility-scale systems decrease. In fact, one manufacturer says that solar paired with energy storage can be supplied to utilities at a cost of 10 cents per kilowatt-hour.

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Kevin Williams’s picture

Kevin Williams

Kevin Williams is a native of Kansas City, MO with a history of entrepreneurship. He has been a principal in several start-ups and consulted with business owners at many levels.


How to use the advanced (regulator) solar CSP power plant project finance model

July 12th, 2017 No Comments   Posted in financial models

How to use the advanced (regulator) solar CSP (concentrated solar power) plant project finance model

(Lord God, bless my website and my readers that they will contribute to my charity fund for the jobless, sickly, needy, homeless, hungry and destitute. God Bless you all my friends for reading my blog and ordering my project finance models. Amen.)

Finding an easy-to-use project finance model for a solar CSP power plant with built-in data is sometimes difficult as some models don’t have the sophistication of a regulator template model as well as the ease of using the model and viewing immediately the results of a sensitivity change in the inputs to the model.

This is now made easy because the Input & Assumptions worksheet (tab) has combined all the input and output information in a single worksheet and placing the reports in other worksheets such as Tariff Breakdown, Construction Period, Operating Period, Financial Reports and Levelized Tariff.

Following is a sample case study on a solar CSP power plant. From the preliminary design and cost estimates, the top management would want to know if the business idea of going into solar CSP power development, construction and operation is worth the effort – is it feasible and what are the economic and financial returns for risking capital.

Here are the inputs and outputs of the advanced template model from OMT ENERGY ENTERPRISES:


Here are the summary of inputs:

all-in capital cost (overnight cost) = 5,881 $/kW (target cost)

EPC cost portion = 4,526 $/kW (computed by model)

refurbishment cost = 5% of EPC cost on the 10th year (overhaul)

fixed O&M cost = 24.69 $/kW/year (target cost) = 2,144.03 ‘000$/unit/year (computed by goal seek)

variable O&M cost = 2.00 $/MWh (target cost) = 15.69 ‘000$/MW/year (computed by goal seek)

general admin cost = 100.00 ‘000$/year (target cost)


Thermal power plant inputs: (not applicable to solar CSP)

Gross heating value of solar CSP fuel = 5,198 Btu/lb

Plant heat rate = 10,663 Btu/kWh (32.00% thermal efficiency)

Cost of biomass fuel = 1.299 PhP/kg = 1,299 PhP/MT


Lube oil consumption rate = 5.4 gram/kWh

Density of lube oil = 0.980 kg/Liter

Cost of lube oil = 200.00 PhP/Liter


capacity = 200.00 MW/unit x 2 units = 400.00 MW


Plant Availability Factor, %                                    96.67% (computed by goal seek)

Load Factor, %                                                      95.00% (assumed)

Allowance for losses & own use, %                       2.00% (assumed)

Net Capacity Factor after losses & own use, %    90.00% (target net capacity factor)

Degradation rate, %                                               0.2%


construction period = 24 months (start 2016)

operating period = 25 years (start 2018)


Capital cost estimation assumptions and % local cost (LC):

Power plant footprint (ha)                                   10.00

Cost of purchased land (PhP/sqm)                    15.00 (no land lease)

Land cost, $000 $29.82 100.0%
Equipment Cost ex BOP, Transport ($000/MW) $3,209.89 15.0%
Insurance, Ocean Freight, Local Transport, % of Equipment Cost 10.0% 100.0%
Balance of Plant (BOP), % of Equipment Cost 31.0% 50.0%
Transmission Line Distance (km) 15.00
T/L Cost per km, 69 kV ($000/km) $84.00 100.0%
Switchyard & Transformers ($000) $145.00 100.0%
Access Roads ($000/km) $44.19 100.0%
Distance of Access Road (km) 15.00
Dev’t & Other Costs (land, permits, etc) (% of EPC) 2.0% 50.0%
VAT on importation (70% recoverable) 12% 100.0%
Customs Duty 0% 100.0%
Initial Working Capital (% of EPC) 1.0% 100.0%
Contingency (% of Total Cost) 7.5% 36.5%


Capital cost breakdown (‘000$): (computed values)

Uses of Fund:

Uses of Fund:
   Land Cost $30
   EPC (Equipment, Balance of Plant, Transport) $1,810,379
   Transmission Line Interconnection Facility $1,260
   Sub-Station Facility $145
   Development & Other Costs (Civil Works, Customs Duty) $36,870
   Construction Contingency $138,649
   Value Added Tax $165,337
   Financing Costs $181,578
   Initial Working Capital $18,104
Total Uses of Fund – $000 $2,352,351
                                 – PhP 000 118,316,450
Sources of Fund:
   Debt $1,646,646
   Equity $705,705
Total Sources of Fund $2,352,351


Local and Foreign Cost Components (from individual cost item):

Local Capital = 36.5 %

Foreign Capital = 63.5 %


Balance Sheet Accounts:

Receivables = 30 days of revenue

Payables    = 30 days of expenses

Inventory    = 60 days of consumables


Imported Capital Equipment:

Customs duty = 0%

Value added tax (VAT) = 12%

VAT recovery = 70% on 5th year of operation


Type of input / output VAT = 0 (none)

Type of incentives = 2 (BOI incentives)


Tax Assumptions:

Income Tax Holiday (yrs) 7
Income Tax Rate % (after ITH) 10%
Property tax (from COD) 1.5%
Property tax valuation rate (% of NBV) 80%
Local Business Tax 1.0%
Government Share (from COD) 1.0%
ER 1-94 Contribution (PhP/kWh) 0.01
Withholding Tax on Interest (Foreign Currency) – WHT 10%
Gross Receipts Tax on Interest (Local Currency) – GRT 5%
Documentary Stamps Tax (DST) 0.5%
PEZA Incentives (% of gross income) – 0% / 5% 0%
Royalty 0%


Capital Structure:

Equity Share = 30% at 14.00% p.a. target equity returns (IRR)

Debt Share = 70% (36.5% local, 63.5% foreign)


Debt Terms:

Local & Foreign Upfront & Financing Fees 2.00%
Local & Foreign Commitment Fees 0.50%
Local All-in Interest Rate excluding tax 10.00%
Local Debt Payment Period (from end of GP) (yrs) 10
Foreign All-in Interest Rate excluding tax 8.00%
Foreign Debt Payment Period (from end of GP) (yrs) 10
Local and Foreign Grace Period from COD (mos) 6
Local and Foreign debt Service Reserve (mos) 6


Foreign Exchange Rate:

Base Foreign Exchange Rate (PhP/US$) – 2013            48.0000 (construction)

Forward Fixed Exchange Rate (PhP/US$) – 2014           50.2971 (operating)


Escalation (CPI):

Annual Local CPI – for OPEX      0.0%            4.0%     for CAPEX (to model construction delay)

Annual US CPI – for OPEX           0.0%            2.0%     for CAPEX (to model construction delay)


Weighted Average Cost of Capital:

WACC pre-tax       10.38%

WACC after-tax     9.34%

WACC                   10.30%


Results of Financial Analysis:


First year tariff (Feed-in-Tariff) = 5.51450 P/kWh = 0.10964 USD/kWh

(at zero equity NPV)


Short run marginal cost (SRMC) and Long run marginal cost (LRMC)

Item PhP 000 PhP/kWh
Fuel                      – 0.000
Lubes              86,530 0.001
Var O&M          7,889,902 0.103
Total          7,976,432 0.104
MWh net        76,947,840
SRMC          7,976,432 0.104
Fix O&M        35,245,717 0.458
Capital Cost      381,107,017 4.953
LRMC      424,329,167 5.515


Equity Returns: (30% equity, 70% debt)

IRR          = 14.00    % p.a. (target returns)

NPV        = 0.00    ‘000$

PAYBACK = 10.28    years


Project Returns: (100% equity, 0% debt)

IRR          = 11.91        % p.a.

NPV        = (13,405,736)  ‘000$ (negative since IRR < 14.00%)

PAYBACK = 7.22        years


The above runs were based on goal-seek to make equity NPV = 0 (to meet equity IRR target of 14.00% p.a.).

You can perform sensitivity analysis and save the results in a case column (copy paste value).

You can breakdown the tariff ($/kWh) into its capital ($/kW-month) and variable cost recovery ($/kWh) portions.

You can prepare a all-in capital cost breakdown showing interest cost during construction and does model the impact of project construction delays.

You can show the evolution of capacity and generation (degradation) during the operating period and show other revenues, expenses and balance sheet accounts as they change over time during operation years.

You can show the income & expense statement.

You can show the cash flow statement.

You can show the balance sheet.

You can show the debt service cover ratio (DSCR) as it computes the cash flow available for debt service.

It also computes the benefits to cost ratio (B/C) of the project.

Finally, it computes the other financial ratios such as:







Download the sample file below:

Model Inputs and Results – Solar CSP


Download the complete demo model for a solar CSP power plant in PHP and USD currencies are shown below:

ADV Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Model3 – demo5b

ADV Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Model3 (USD) – demo5b

If you have actual data from your OEM and EPC suppliers, kindly share the data with me or simply enter your live data into the above models and see how the results will change immediately before your eyes. Please email me back the updated demo model with your new data so you may share it will all our readers of this blog.


To purchase the PHP and USD models at a discount (only USD400 for two models), click the link below:

CSP 400 mw Project Finance Model Ver. 3 – in USD and PHP Currency


You may place your order now and avail of a package for the unlocked model with free guidance on using it. The list price of the solar CSP model is USD1,400 and I will give you one-hour free for assistance in putting your input data into the model (via telephone or email or FB messenger).

Your energy technology selection expert.

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