Energy Technology Expert – my expertise and services

Where to Get Assistance for Energy & Electricity Investment Opportunities in the Philippines

Marcial Ocampo provides a blog on issues and concerns regarding current and future fuel cycles and power generation technologies as they affect the environment, fuel supplies and power generation capacities, efficiency of utilization of fuel or energy resource, pollution & greenhouse gas emissions, and cost of power (overnight capital cost $/kW) and energy (levelized $/kWh).

He provides market, technical and economic feasibility studies and prepares project finance models for determining asset value (bid price), levelized price of energy or electricity, or equity returns (DCF IRR).

He is also familiar with investment opportunities in the Philippine energy and electricity sector (Philippine Energy Plan, Power Development Plan) and the regulatory framework (EPIRA and RE laws,  implementing rules and regulations, Distribution Code, Grid Code) for purchasing a power plant from PSALM/NPC or for putting up a new power plant (conventional, fossil or renewable).

He can guide you in securing incentives under the latest Philippine Renewable Energy (RE) law and its implementing rules and regulations (IRR).

In addition, he could guide you in securing the needed endorsement from the Philippine Department of Energy (DOE), permits and licenses from the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) and other government agencies (DTI, SEC, BIR, DENR, EMB, NWRB, PNRI, DOLE, NTC, BOC, PPA, ATO, PDEA, BOI, NCIP and LGUs) in order that the facility is duly licensed to operate as a power generation facility with an electricity tariff that is the “best new entrant” for the given location and application in order to balance the need of the customers for affordable electricity and the need of the investor to meet its investment return criteria.

Should you need assistance in preparing a project finance model and a feasibility study (market, technical, economic, financial) using Philippine oil, energy and electricity data, please don’t hesitate to contact Marcial.

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tel/fax: (632)-932-5530 More »

Is Advanced Clean Coal the Answer to our Global Power Problem?

Is Advanced Clean Coal Technology the Answer to our Global Power Problem?

Remaining Life of Fossil Fuels (oil, natural gas, coal)

Recent events have thrust lately renewed interest in “advanced clean coal” technologies to provide additional power generation capacity in view of dwindling and expensive oil supplies (remaining life 39 years), natural gas (61 years). World wide coal reserves are expected to last over 231 years (remaining life = reserves / extraction rate).

However, due to concerns arising from pollution (emission of sulfur as SO2, toxic ash and heavy metals) and climate change (emission of CO2 greenhouse gases), the utilization of coal for power generation has spurred researches leading to the development and commercialization of so called “advanced clean coal” technologies. More »

Shall We Go Nuclear?

Shall We Go Nuclear?

Oil Crisis of 2008

The recent oil crisis which saw the rise of crude oil prices to a peak of $147 per barrel in the world market and its attendant effect on raising electricity prices in the Philippines at a rate higher than its competitor economies in the region has brought forth renewed calls to review policies relative to the development of the Philippine Nuclear Industry.

Revive the 600 MW BNPP?

In particular, attention has been directed toward reviving the mothballed 600 MW Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) constructed by the National Power Corporation in the early 1980’s. In its desire to be part of the growing list of nuclear power generation nations in the world, the Philippines implemented a national agenda that included the construction of the 600 MW BNPP in tandem with the 300 MW Kalayaan Pumped Storage Hydro Plant in 1982. The pumped storage would serve as a dummy load of the nuclear plant during off-peak periods at night in order to allow for a constant and stable generation of 600 MW of nuclear power throughout the entire day. (In the absence of the “cheap” nuclear electricity, the Laguna Lake water is pumped uphill to Lake Caliraya at night using geothermal, coal and sometimes expensive oil-based electricity in order to have adequate baseload capacity during day-time peak hours.)

Numerous Issues Hounded the BNPP

Unfortunately, or for reasons only Providence could imagine, the BNPP has been hounded with controversy ranging from allegations of overprice and corruption in the construction of the power plant, unsafe plant location being near an inactive volcano (Mt. Natib), being located near an active fault, possible long-term environmental harm to the nearby residents and Luzon populace in the event of accidental release of radio active gases and materials arising from a nuclear accident, unsafe plant design (pressurized water reactor or PWR), expensive electricity arising from its high cost per kW due to overprice (one 600 MW plant for the cost of two 600 MW plants as originally conceived), and of course, how to economically and safely dispose of the spent nuclear fuel material, radioactive control rods and other materials exposed to high levels of radiation.

More »

Wind Energy

The file (697 KB) will cover the following topics:


  • An indirect form of solar energy stored in kinetic form
  • Induced chiefly by the uneven heating of the earth’s crust by the sun.

Uses of Wind Energy

  1. Home owners may generate electricity, charge batteries, sell excess power to utility
  2. Large, modern turbines in wind farms can produce electricity for utilities
  3. Remote villages can generate power, pump water, grind grain, meet their basic energy needs.

Topics – Wind Energy

  • Wind Energy, Its Uses and History
  • Global Wind Resource Potential
  • Basic Principles of Operation & Components
  • Power Output and Maximum Efficiency
  • Types of Wind Mills and Examples
  • Cost of Wind Power (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

History of Wind Turbines

  • Hero of Alexandria described a wind machine in the 1st century AD
  • Arabic texts of the 9th century talked of 7th century windmill.
  • Windmills spread to Europe from the Middle East for grinding grain, drainage, pumping, saw-milling, etc.
  • Post mills (rotated into the wind), were known in France and England in the 12th century. Tower mills (sails on top rotated), were introduced in France around the 14th century.
  • The first windmill to drive an electric generator was built by P. Lacour of Denmark in the late 19th century.
  • In 1931, a propeller-type windmill was built in Crimea for low-voltage electricity that fed into the local grid.
  • Experiments in 1940 led to a large Smith-Putnam machine, a twin-blade 55m diameter propeller-type rotor on a 34m tower rated at 1.25 MW ac power at 28 rpm.

Global Wind Resource

  • Wind is the movement of air in response to pressure differences within the atmosphere, caused primarily by uneven heating by the sun on the surface of the earth, exerting a force which causes air masses to move from a region of high pressure to a low one.
  • About 1.7 million TWh of energy each year is generated in the form of wind over the earth’s land masses, much more over the globe as a whole. Only a small fraction can be harnessed to generate useful energy because of competing land use.
  • A 1991 estimate puts the realizable global wind power potential at 53,000 TWh per year.
  • US, UK and China have vast wind resource potential. With only 6% of total land area available for wind, US could generate about 500,000 MW. Present US capacity is 2,500 MW.

Basic Principles and Components of a Modern Wind Turbine

  • Turbine rotor captures the wind energy and converts it into mechanical energy fed via a gearbox to a generator
  • Gearbox / generator housed in an enclosed nacelle with the turbine rotor is attached to its front
  • Combined rotor and nacelle mounted on a tower fitted with a yawing system keeps the turbine rotor facing into the wind always

Types of Modern Wind Turbines

  • Vertical-Axis Windmills – early machines known as Persian windmills; evolved from ship sails made of canvas or wood attached to a large horizontal wheel; when used to grind grain into flour, they were called windmills.
  • Horizontal-Axis Windmills –first designs had sails built on a post that could face into any wind direction, and were called post mills; evolved throughout the Middle Ages and was used for grinding grain, drainage, pumping, saw-milling.

Price: 56 USD

Energy Technology Road Map

March 12th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in power generation

The file (193 KB) will cover the following topics:


In its “Electricity Supply Roadmap, January 1999”, EPRI clarified the ultimate goal or vision for the power generation industry worldwide:

A robust portfolio of technologies that provide reliable, affordable electricity, with capacity and resource flexibility to meet global market needs – on a sustainable basis – with acceptable environmental impacts.

Implementation will vary from developed and developing countries, from region to region, based on indigenous resources and on economic, environmental and political factors, hence, the need for a portfolio of solutions.

Power Generation Technology Roadmap : Two Destinations

The EPRI Roadmap suggests destinations and identifies R&D opportunities over two nominal time frames:

Twenty years from now (2020) – to assess near-term opportunities and the technical foundations we will draw upon to reach 2050 goals

Fifty years from now (2050) – to encompass truly new and innovative technologies, not simple extrapolation of today’s development efforts. 50 years is deemed to be long enough to allow for capital stock turnover and widespread adoption of new technology. It also provides milestone for gauging progress toward broader goals for energy use by 2100.

Price: 40 USD

Energy Storage Technologies

The file (806 KB) will cover the following topics:


Energy Storage – used to store and regenerate power for peak shaving and to even out generation fluctuations created by fluctuations in the resource being exploited

Allows greater use of intermittent renewable energy technologies – off-peak wind, solar, ocean wave, tidal power are stored in batteries, pumped storage hydro or stored hydrogen from electrolysis of water.

Topics – Storage Technologies

  • Energy Storage, Its Uses
  • Energy Storage Systems and Types
  • Hourly and Daily Power Consumption
  • Principles of Energy Storage
  • Cost of Energy Storage Technologies
  • Benefits from Energy Storage
  • Environmental Impact & Risks
  • Distributed Generation

Price: 56 USD

Solar Energy

The file (871 KB) will cover the following topics:

Solar energy has potential of supplying all our energy needs for: electric, thermal, process, chemical and even transportation; however, it is very diffuse, cyclic and often undependable because of varying weather conditions.

  • Sun – largest object in our solar system; outer visible layer called photosphere has temperature of 6,000 C
  • Sunlight or solar energy – main source of energy for wind, hydro, ocean and biomass.

Price: 34USD

Simple Gas Turbine (GT)

The file (525 KB) will cover the following topics:

Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plants

  • 130 BC – Hero of Alexandria’s reaction steam turbine
  • 1550 – Leonardo da Vinci’s “smoke mill”
  • 1629 – Giovanni Branca’s impulse steam turbine
  • 1791 – John Barber’s patent for steam turbine – “gas was produced from heated coal, mixed with air, compressed and then burnt to produce a high speed jet that impinged on radial blades on a turbine wheel rim”.

Topics – Simple Gas Turbines

  • Gas Turbines, Its Uses and History
  • Aero-Derivative Gas Turbine Developments
  • Operating Principle of a Gas Turbine
  • Ideal & Non-Ideal Brayton Cycle, Its Efficiency
  • Effects of Varying Compression Ratio
  • Modifications to Improve Efficiency
  • Gas Turbine Fuels
  • Gas Turbine Technologies
  • Advantages, Disadvantages of GT
  • Environmental Impact, Risks of GT

Price: 44 USD

Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

The file (69 KB) will cover the following topics:

Renewable Sources of Energy

  • Geothermal Energy (radioactive decay and initial heat of earth)
  • Solar Energy (radiation from sun)
  • Hydro
  • Solar PV and Solar Thermal
  • Wind
  • Biomass and Wastes
  • Ocean Thermal
  • Ocean Wave, Ocean Current
  • Tidal Energy (gravitational pull of moon and earth’s rotation)
  • Hydrogen Energy (from biomass and water)

Price: 10 USD

Pulverized Coal

The file (1.59 MB) will cover the following topics:


Coal is formed from plants by chemical and geological processes which occur over million of years.

First product of this process was peat (partially decomposed stems, twigs, bark), then transformed into lignite, bituminous, then anthracite.

Coal is the largest source of energy for power and other uses:

Primary Energy Electricity

World: 23%                        40%

US: 55%

Philippines: 13%                        38%

Topics – Traditional Coal Thermal

  • Coal Resource : Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Types of Coal and Reserves
  • Properties of Coal, Coal-Mixtures and Classification by Rank
  • Examples of Pulverized Coal Boilers & Plants
  • Basic Principle of Pulverized Coal Thermal Plant
  • Coal Mining, Preparation, Transport, Storage, Pulverization & Firing
  • Pollution Control Technologies in Coal Plants
  • Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants
  • Cost of Coal-Fired Plants and Treatment (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Coal Plants in the Philippines
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 64 USD

Primary Energy Sources

March 12th, 2009 2 Comments   Posted in energy sources, primary energy

The file (294 KB) will cover the following topics:


The traditional way of classifying primary energy sources is as follows:
Fossil fuels:

  • Solid (coal, petroleum coke or petcoke)
  • Liquid (petroleum fuels, gas liquids and derivatives e.g. condensate, methanol, ethanol)
  • Gas (natural gas, LPG, hydrogen)

Nuclear fuels (uranium, plutonium)

Renewable energy (hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, ocean, biomass, wastes)

The California Energy Commission has a different way of classifying fuel and technology cycles:

Price: 60 USD

Piston Engines

The file (138 KB) will cover the following topics:

Piston or Reciprocating Engines

4-Stroke medium speed diesel engines are mainly used for power generation on small islands, in remote areas and for industrial purposes. Medium speed technology is competitive for intermediate and base load power plants up to 200 MW: high levels of reliability and availability, rapid construction and installation, competitive capital cost and delivery times, and total efficiency approaching 90% for CHP plants.

Topics – Piston Engine

  • Piston Engine, Its Uses, Fuels
  • Types of Diesel Engines and Applications
  • Compression Ratio and Efficiency of Engines
  • Turbo-Charging of Engines
  • Engine Heat Balance
  • Basic Engine Construction & Support Systems
  • Cost of Diesel Power
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 30 USD

Oil Thermal

The file (1.21 MB) will cover the following topics:

Oil Thermal Energy

Rock oil” was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859 by a man drilling for water

Crude oil accounts for 40% of energy use worldwide: 3% of power comes from oil, 16% from natural gas.

High energy density, 43 MJ/kg (18,600 Btu/lb), and relatively clean burning, versatile.

Topics – Oil Thermal

  • Oil & Gas Resource: Origin, Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Properties of Liquid Fuels, Fuel Oils and Natural Gas
  • Basic Principle of Oil-Gas Thermal Plant
  • Ideal and Modified Rankine (Steam) Cycle Efficiency, Heat Rates
  • Oil-Gas Burners (Circular, S-type, Reduced NOx)
  • Reducing NOx Emissions (FGR, LEA, 2-stage air, Re-burning)
  • Emissions from Power Plants
  • Pollution Control Technologies used in Power Generation
  • Cost of Power Generation (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Oil-Thermal and Diesel Plants in the Philippines
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 42 USD

Ocean Energy

The file (657 KB) will cover the following topics:


Wave energy – winds generate large ocean waves that can be used to generate power from its potential and kinetic energy.

Ocean temperature energy conversion (OTEC) – temperature gradient between the surface and bottom of the ocean can be utilized in a heat engine to generate power

Tidal energy – caused by lunar and solar gravitational forces acting together with that from the earth on the ocean waters to create tidal flows manifested by the rise and fall of waters that vary daily and seasonally from a few centimeters up to 8-10 meters in some parts of the world. The potential energy of the tides is tapped to generate power.

Topics – Ocean Energy

  • Ocean Energy
  • Energy from Oceans (OTEC, Wave, Hydro, Tidal)
  • Efficiency & Types of OTEC (Open, Closed, Hybrid)
  • Ocean Waves: Potential, Progressive Wave Motion, Power Density
  • Devices that Convert Ocean Wave to Energy
  • Ocean Wave Power Plants
  • Tidal Energy, Its Potential
  • Types of Tidal Power Plants (Single-Pool, Modulated, Two-Pool)
  • Tidal Energy Power Plants
  • Cost of Ocean & Tidal Power
  • Benefits from Ocean & Tidal Energy
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 26 USD

Nuclear Energy

The file (781 KB) will cover the following topics:

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power – most controversial of all forms of power generation

Operating principle – Controlled nuclear fission in a reactor using uranium as fuel produces heat, which is captured to produce steam. The steam is used to drive a steam turbine, which in turn drives an electric generator.

Topics – Nuclear Energy

  • Nuclear Energy, Its Uses and History
  • Nuclear Power Capacity and Power Generation
  • Fundamentals of Nuclear Power
  • Types of Nuclear Reactors
  • BWR, PWR, AGR, HTGR, Breeder, GT-MHR
  • Cost of Nuclear Power
  • Environmental Considerations
  • Risks

Price: 70 USD

Near-Term Energy Sources

March 12th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in energy sources, power generation

The file (576 KB) will cover the following topics:

Near Term (within 20 years)

  • Coal Direct Liquefaction
  • Coal Indirect Liquefaction
  • Coal Pyrolysis
  • Petrothermal – Hot Dry Rock

Price: 70 USD

Long Term Energy Fuel Cycles

March 11th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in energy sources, power generation

The file (373 KB) will cover the following topics:

Long Term (20 – 50 years)

  • Nuclear Fission
  • Oil Shale
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Hydrogen
  • Petrothermal – Magma

Price: 70 USD

Hydrogen Energy

The file (91 KB) will cover the following topics:


Hydrogen – 3rd most abundant element on earth’s surface; found primarily in water [H2O] and organic compounds and generally produced from hydrocarbons thru reforming and water thru electrolysis.

When burned as fuel or converted to electricity, it joins with oxygen [O2] again to form water.

Price: 20 USD

Hydro Power

The file (633 KB) will cover the following topics:

Hydro Power

Flowing water creates energy that can be stored, captured and turned into electricity. Hydropower is the world’s most important renewable energy source. It provides 7.2% of world’s primary energy and 18.5% of electric power generation.

Price: 26 USD

History of Power Generation

The file (549 KB) will cover the following topics:


  • 1878 – Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison independently invented the carbon filament that produced light from electricity – incandescent lamp.
  • 1879 – Thomas Edison founded the electric company, his greatest achievement – “Edison Electric Light Station”.
  • 1882 – Carl de Laval invented steam turbine that drove electric generators more efficiently than earlier reciprocating steam engines. Coal then oil was used.
  • 1884 – Charles Parsons constructs the first practical steam turbine electric generator to be driven by fuel-burning power plants in the electric power industry.
  • 1895 – Niagara Falls – world’s first large-scale central generating station transmitts power 20 miles away to Buffalo and it employed 2-phase AC techniques of Nikola Tesla.
  • 1905 – Albert Einstein publishes his “Theory of Relativity” and the equation E = m c2, foundation of nuclear power.
  • 1907 – a new material called tungsten was used to replace carbon strips of bamboo as filament in the incandescent lamps

Other inventions that used electricity – electric trams and railways for urban transport, telephone and telegraph, phonograph, radio and television, incandescent and fluorescent lighting, electric motors and electric heating, refrigeration and air conditioning, computers and electronics – accelerated the need for larger and reliable generating plants.

Price: 11 USD