When Nuclear Energy is not viable or applicable

June 28th, 2017 No Comments   Posted in power generation

When Nuclear Energy is not viable or applicable

The alternative to large-scale nuclear power is to use ocean energy – from waves, thermal gradients and ocean currents – and tidal currents due to changes in sea elevation resulting from gravitational forces of the moon and sun on the earth’s surface. Ocean and tidal currents are predictable unlike intermittent renewable solar PV, solar CSP, wind and to some extent mini-hydro which depends on rainfall. Stored biomass and waste-to-energy systems (gasification, pyrolysis) may provide dispatcheable power to act as baseload, together with predictable ocean and tidal currents – is the key to a reliable and stable electricity grid in the future.

But we still need other conventional and fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, geothermal, hydro, simple and combined cycle gas turbines running on liquid and gaseous fuels to provide additional base load and mid-merit load, as well as high-speed peaking load plants to stabilize the electrical network.

I will soon start a mini-series on power generation technologies and present the description, theory, history, capital cost and operating cost, emissions, environmental impacts, benefits and risks of each technology.

From this information, I will then present a template project finance model for each technology to illustrate its economic viability and how it could compete in the electricity grid and thus dispatched to meet its revenue requirements to repay both equity and debt investors.

By using these template models to compute the short run marginal cost (SRMC = variable O&M cost + fuel cost + lube oil cost) and long run marginal cost (LRMC = annualized capital cost + fixed O&M + regulatory cost + SRMC), the energy & power planner can stack up the dependable power generation capacities from the cheapest to the most expensive SRMC or LRMC. The power technologies or power plants in the stack up to the power demand of the grid then gets dispatched and this is how we can ensure that dispatched power is the cheapest cost possible while meeting power demand.


Email me to register to this mini-series. First come first serve.



Get my project finance models – renewable, coal, conventional and waste heat recovery

June 27th, 2017 No Comments   Posted in financial models

Get my project finance models – renewable, coal, conventional and waste heat recovery

Yes, get any of the 4 groups of project finance models this week until July 15, 2017.

Please see the demo models below and email me ASAP which group you want and what currency you want the model (e.g. PHP, USD, EUR, GBP, CNY, JPY, AUS, and all Asian, Oceana, Middle East, African, European, North American and Latin American currencies).

Group 1 – Renewable Energy (USD 1,000) Technologies – all models:

ADV Biomass Cogeneration Model3 – demo5b

ADV Biomass Direct Combustion Model3 – demo5b

ADV Biomass Gasification Model3 – demo5b

ADV Biomass IGCC Model3 – demo5b

ADV Biomass WTE Model3 – demo5b

ADV Biomass WTE Model3 – pyrolysis – demo5b

ADV Mini-Hydro Model3 – demo5b

ADV Ocean Thermal Model3_10 MW – demo5b

ADV Ocean Thermal Model3_50 MW – demo5b

ADV Tidal Current Model3_30 MW (INR) – demo5b

ADV Solar PV 1 mw Model3 – demo5b

ADV Solar PV 25 mw Model3 – demo5b

ADV Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Model3 – demo5b

ADV Wind Offshore Model3 – demo5b

ADV Wind Onshore Model3 – demo5b

To avail of the Group 1 (renewables) package, click on the link below or paste to your browser:


Group 2 – Clean Coal Technologies (USD 1,000) all models:

ADV Coal-Fired CFB Thermal Model3_50 MW – demo5b

ADV Coal-Fired CFB Thermal Model3_135 MW – demo5b

ADV Coal-Fired PC Subcritical Thermal Model3 – demo5b

ADV Coal-Fired PC Supercritical Thermal Model3 – demo5b

ADV Coal-Fired PC Ultrasupercritical Thermal Model3 – demo5b

To avail of the Group 2 (pulverized coal, clean coal CFB) package, click the link below or paste to your browser:


Group 3 – Conventional & Fossil Technologies (USD 1,000) all models:

ADV Diesel Genset Model3 – demo5b

ADV Fuel Oil Genset Model3 – demo5b

ADV Fuel Oil Thermal Model3 – demo5b

ADV Geo Thermal Model3 – demo5b

ADV Large Hydro Model3 – demo5b

ADV Natgas Combined Cycle Model3 – demo5b

ADV Natgas Simple Cycle Model3 – demo5b

ADV Natgas Thermal Model3 – demo5b

ADV Petcoke-Fired PC Subcritical Thermal Model3 – demo5b

ADV Nuclear PHWR Model3 – demo5b

To avail of the Group 3 (conventional, fossil, nuclear and petcoke) package, click the link below or paste to your browser:


Group 4 – Combined Heat & Power (CHP) and Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) Systems (USD 1,000) – all models:

ADV Coal-Fired CFB Thermal Model3_50 MW CHP – demo5b

ADV Diesel Genset and Waste Heat Boiler Model3 – demo5b

ADV Fuel Oil Genset and Waste Heat Boiler Model3 – demo5b

ADV Gasoline Genset and Waste Heat Boiler Model3 – demo5b

ADV Propane Simple Cycle and Waste Heat Boiler Model3 – demo5b

ADV Simple Cycle and Waste Heat Boiler Model3 – demo5b

To avail of the Group 4 (combined heat & power, waste heat recovery boiler) package, click the link below or paste to your browser:


Download any of the above models to see its capabilities and ease of using.


Your energy technology selection expert and project finance modeling expert

Email me for more details:


Visit us:




A Generic Strategy for Reducing Electricity Cost, Environmental Impact, and Promote Inclusive Economic Growth in Communities Hosting Energy & Power Industries

June 21st, 2017 No Comments   Posted in power generation

A Generic Strategy for Reducing Electricity Cost, Environmental Impact, and Promoting Inclusive Economic Growth in Communities Hosting Energy & Power Industries

Marcial Ocampo has a lifetime dream and advocacy: to help the country (Philippines) reduce its energy & power costs and consumption by optimizing the capacity and generation mix, reduce oil and energy imports by promoting indigenous resources, reduce the environmental impact footprint of power plants, and promote inclusive economic growth especially for the marginalized communities hosting the power plants and sources of fuels or energy.

Among the generic measures he proposes that can be applied to any country, especially countries with renewable energy sources, are as follows:

1) Use of advanced mixed integer linear programming (MILP) optimization software to process existing power plant data on capacity, efficiency or heat rate, availability and reliability, capital & operating costs, fuel costs & heating value, ramp-up and ramp-down rates and environmental emissions to optimize short-term and long-term capacity and generation mix, in order to achieve cheapest short-run generation cost (SRMC) and least cost long-run capacity expansion (LRMC).

2) Improve the quality of power generation (reliability, availability, frequency, load-following, backup reserves) in the country by having an optimal mix that balances the need for intermittent renewable energy for sustainable growth that also requires high-speed fossil generation to backup such intermittent technologies such as when the sun and wind becomes unavailable momentarily and stabilize the electrical network.

3) Make use of all municipal solid wastes (MSW), liquid and gaseous wastes (bio-gas and land-fill gas) to provide distributed power generation and process heat throughout the country in order to address waste collection, treatment, storage, sanitation and disposal problems. Not all cities and municipalities have access to geologic sites like gullies that can support environmentally sanitary landfills, so it is important that groups of cities and municipalities pool their resources to have a common and centrally located waste-to-energy system (gasification, pyrolysis) power plant utilizing MSW and biological wastes in order to reduce the size of MSW and its treatment residues.

4) Make use of all indigenous energy and fuel resources in the country in order to conserve precious foreign exchange (to purchase petroleum fuels, coal), utilize local coal and natural gas reserves, use carbon-neutral biomass from trees and shrubs to provide fuel pellets to co-fire boilers using oil and coal and thus initiate a gradual shift from fossil to renewable biomass power generation. I believe that anti-coal environmental advocates should take a second and favorable look into indigenous coal since later on, as the world runs out of fossil fuel, the country needs them for power and fuel security. Coal is a transition fuel as the world converts from oil products to renewable energy and delays the depletion of crude oil. It would be a crime in the future to burn oil products as fuel since scarce oil is more needed for lubrication of industrial and transport machineries and manufacture of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals.

5) Make use of available renewable energy such as biomass, waste-to-energy, solar PV, solar CSP, wind, mini-hydro and ocean energy provided by waves, thermal gradients, ocean currents and tidal flows due to the gravitational effects of the moon and sun on the earth’s surface that give rise to ocean currents or tidal currents in the vast oceans of the world. Estimates of 1.0 – 2.5 meters per second of ocean and tidal currents are found in the coastal vicinities of Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam and Philippines. Ocean currents are predictable and nearly constant as against intermittent solar and wind.

6) To utilize off-peak renewable energy to store energy in elevated dams or barriers, for future release using water turbines when peak energy and power is required. Energy may be stored as potential energy or as chemical energy in the form of Hydrogen gas from electrolysis of water using off-peak electricity and extracted in thermal plants or in fuel cells.

7) Let us integrate renewable energy in the design of our civil and transport infrastructures like putting solar PV and small-scale wind turbines in long-span bridges and dams, or putting ocean and tidal current water turbines under bridges or barrages that connects islands between straits, or when lakes or large marsh lands are surrounded with elevated highways that serves as flood control structures and provided with low-head water turbines to capture the energy of the released flood waters, just like in conventional large impoundment dams. This is one way of reducing the cost of the renewable energy by integrating them in the design and construction of public infrastructures. Building Integrated Photo Voltaic (BIPV) solar panels and rooftop-mounted solar heaters are now used in commercial buildings like malls, hotels and residential buildings to provide electricity and hot water.

8) Lastly, to reduce power costs drastically, adopt mine-mouth clean coal power generation technology (e.g. CFB). By using the low-BTU lignite coal reserves spread throughout the Philippine archipelago, which is economical only to use in mine-mouth configuration due to its low BTU, high moisture, high ash content, but low in sulfur and the mine adjacent to nearby limestone deposits, we can bring down further the electricity cost from base-load coal-fired power plants as it saves on the cost of logistics – hauling coal and barging or shipping costs – which are significant cost items. By integrating mine-mouth coal power plant with co-firing with biomass wood pellets coming from mature rubber trees and other fast-growing trees, the country can provide cheaper power without harming the environment and provide local job opportunities to coal miners and workers of tree plantations near the mine-mouth coal power plant. Planting rubber trees provide an immediate income stream to support the rural tree farm workers during the early life of the tree and once it become old and un-productive, it can be sold as wood pellets to the mine-mouth coal-fired power plant. Once the coal reserves are depleted or uneconomical to extract, the power plant becomes a renewable biomass wood chips and pellet power plant.

I am available for new endeavors this coming August 1, 2017.

I am hoping you would find time to communicate with me and discuss my ideas further.

Yours truly,

Marcial T. Ocampo

+63-9156067949 (GLOBE mobile)

+63-2-9313713 (PLDT home landline)

mars_ocampo@yahoo.com (email)

energydataexpert@gmail.com (email)


Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Technologies – a Quick Guide to Energy Articles and Financial Modeling

July 9th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in cost of power generation

Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Technologies – a mini-lecture series with power point presentation and excel project finance models

Your energy technology selection expert is beginning a lecture series on power generation and fuel cycle technologies. This will involve a discussion on the principles of the technology, its history, capital and operating costs, benefits and risks.


1) To provide the participants a basic understanding of the following commercially available:

– fuel cycle technologies

– power generation technologies, and

– energy storage technologies

2) To know the basic principles, costs, environmental impact, risks and applicability of each of these technologies, and

3) To present the technology roadmap of each of these technologies to guide us in the near term (next 20 years – up to 2020) and in the long term (next 50 years – up to 2050)

The Past

o Introduction – what-is-electricity

o How is Electricity Generated – generation-of-electricity

o History of Power Generation – history-of-power-generation

o The Complete Electric Power System (base load, intermediate & peaking loads)

The Present

o Commercially Available Fuel Technologies, Power Generation Technologies, and Energy Storage Technologies –


o Primary Energy Sources – primary-energy-sources

o Fuel Properties – fuel-properties

o For the commercially available technologies:

– Basic Principles

– Costs

– Environmental Impact

– Associated Risks

– Applicability


The Future

o The Technology Roadmap: Vision, Portfolio, Approach, Global Drivers of Change, Cost of Not Yet Commercially Available Tech –


o The Near Term Fuel, Power Generation, and Energy Storage Technologies (up to 2020) –


o The Long Fuel, Power Generation, and Energy Storage Technologies (up to 2050) –



The project finance models of the power generation technology selection expert are based on one model template; hence, the results are unique for the technology’s capital and operating costs, fuel properties and costs, energy conversion efficiency or heat rate, and energy resource availability and reliability.

The financial models are denominated in Philippine Pesos (PhP 47.00 = USD). You can easily convert to your own local currency by changing the base and forward fixed exchange rate (e.g. XXX 100.00 = USD, USD 1.00 = USD) and do a global replacement of all PhP with XXX currency.


Sample Project Finance Model

Here is a sample project finance model for a biomass thermal power plant that can be customized for your specific need: (Advanced regulator model)


The same model above is also presented in just one worksheet (tab) so you would be able to understand better the structure of a project finance model: (OMT Energy Enterprises model)


A sample non-thermal power plant (no fuel GHV and no fuel cost) can also be downloaded:


A sample liquid fossil thermal power plant (with fuel GHV, fuel density and fuel cost) is also available:


Email me if you need customization:


You may order on-line any project finance model of any renewable, conventional, fossil, nuclear, combined heat and power, and energy storage power generation technologies by visiting this website:


Or please visit this blog for any power generation technology article:



The energy technology expert and financial modeling expert




adv-biomass-cogeneration-model3-demo5 – process heat (steam) and power

adv-biomass-direct-combustion-model3-demo5 – bagasse, rice husk or wood waste fired boiler steam turbine generator

adv-biomass-gasification-model3-demo5 – gasification (thermal conversion in high temperature without oxygen or air, pyrolysis)

adv-biomass-igcc-model3-demo5 – integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology

adv-biomass-wte-model3-demo5 – waste-to-energy (WTE) technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and treatment

adv-biomass-wte-model3-pyrolysis-demo5 – waste-to-energy (WTE) pyrolysis technology

adv-mini-hydro-model3-demo5 – run-of-river (mini-hydro) power plant

adv-concentrating-solar-power-csp-model3-demo5 – concentrating solar power (CSP) 400 MW

adv-solar-pv-1-mw-model3-demo5 – solar PV technology 1 MW Chinese

adv-solar-pv-25-mw-model3-demo5 – solar PV technology 25 MW European and Non-Chinese (Korean, Japanese, US)

adv-wind-onshore-model3-demo5 – includes 81 wind turbine power curves from onshore WTG manufacturers

adv-wind-offshore-model3-demo5 – includes 81 wind turbine power curves from  offshore WTG manufacturers

adv-ocean-thermal-model3_10-mw-demo5 – ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology 10 MW

adv-ocean-thermal-model3_50-mw-demo5 – ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology 50 MW


adv-geo-thermal-model3-demo5 – geothermal power plant  100 MW

adv-large-hydro-model3-demo5 – large hydro power plant 500 MW

adv-coal-fired-cfb-thermal-model3_50-mw-demo5 – subcritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology 50 MW

adv-coal-fired-cfb-thermal-model3_135-mw-demo5 – subcritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology 135 MW

adv-coal-fired-pc-subcritical-thermal-model3-demo5 – subcritical pulverized coal (PC) technology 400 MW

adv-coal-fired-pc-supercritical-thermal-model3-demo5 – supercritical pulverized coal (PC) technology 500 MW

adv-coal-fired-pc-ultrasupercritical-thermal-model3-demo5 – ultrasupercritical pulverized coal (PC) technology 650 MW

adv-diesel-genset-model3-demo5 – diesel-fueled genset (compression ignition engine) technology 50 MW

adv-fuel-oil-genset-model3-demo5 – fuel oil (bunker oil) fired genset (compression ignition engine) technology 100 MW

adv-fuel-oil-thermal-model3-demo5 – fuel oil (bunker oil) fired oil thermal technology 600 MW

adv-natgas-combined-cycle-model3-demo5 – natural gas combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) 500 MW

adv-natgas-simple-cycle-model3-demo5 – natural gas simple cycle (open cycle) gas turbine (OCGT) 70 MW

adv-natgas-thermal-model3-demo5 – natural gas thermal 200 MW

adv-petcoke-fired-pc-subcritical-thermal-model3-demo5 – petroleum coke (petcoke) fired subcritical thermal 220 MW

adv-nuclear-phwr-model3-demo5 – nuclear (uranium) pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) technology 1330 MW


adv-coal-fired-cfb-thermal-model3_50-mw-chp-demo5 – combined heat and power (CHP)  circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology 50 MW

adv-diesel-genset-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – diesel genset (diesel, gas oil) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW

adv-fuel-oil-genset-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – fuel oil (bunker) genset and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW

adv-gasoline-genset-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – gasoline genset (gasoline, land fill gas) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW

adv-propane-simple-cycle-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – simple cycle GT (propane) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW (e.g. Capstone)

adv-simple-cycle-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – simple cycle GT (natural gas, land fill gas, LPG) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW (e.g. Capstone)


Should you need the actual models (not demo) that could be revised for your own needs (additional revenue streams, additional expense accounts, additional balance sheet accounts, etc.), you may:

Email me:


Visit me:






How to run the Advanced Project Finance Models from OMT (Renewable Energy and Non-RE)

June 24th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in project finance models

How to run the Advanced Project Finance Models from OMT (Renewable Energy and Non-RE)

Your energy and power expert and consultant on project development and project finance modeling has prepared a short guide for running the demo versions that are available by clicking on the links in some of the articles in this blog and profile.


Philippine Energy Data Analytics Service Provider – from your energy technology expert

April 25th, 2014 No Comments   Posted in energy data analytics

Philippine Energy Data Analytics Service Provider  – from your energy technology expert

You might be interested to look into the latest power supply and demand outlook (forecast 2014-2020) from the DOE.

It includes the existing 2011 installed capacity, plus constructed 2012-2013, plus committed 2014-2016 projects, then forecast peak demand, total reserves, total supply available.

Aside from the committed, there is also a list of indicative projects as well as future capacity additions for base load, mid-merit and peak load from the power development plan of DOE (from their optimized expansion planning modelling exercise). More »

Marcial Ocampo – the Energy Technology Expert (now available for projects and consultancy or fixed employment)

November 1st, 2012 6 Comments   Posted in energy technology expert

Marcial Ocampo – the Energy Technology Expert (now available for projects and consultancy or fixed employment)

Today, at 2pm on December 6, 2012, the Philippine Department of Energy (DOE) and the Energy Management Association of the Philippines (ENMAP now ENPAP) will confer on Marcial a SPECIAL RECOGNITION AWARD for his significant contributions to goals and achievements of the energy conservation (ENERCON) and energy efficiency initiatives of the government and private sector. The venue of the awards giving is the MERALCO Multi-Purpose Hall. Please be there my friends at the DOE, PNOC, PBR, PETRON, PETRONAS PHIL, DOST, FIRST GEN, UNDP, ADB and WB-IFC.

Marcial T. Ocampo is a Chemical Engineer and placed 2nd place during the 1973 Chemical Engineering Board Examination. Marcial also pursued advanced studies when he finished his M.S. Combustion and Energy from University of Leeds, UK. More »

Project Finance Models – Model Structure

July 31st, 2012 2 Comments   Posted in financial models

Project Finance Models – Model Structure

Don’t waste time developing your model from scratch.

Purchase now our state-of-the-art project finance models for both conventional, fossil, nuclear and renewable energy power generation technologies.

More »