Simple Gas Turbine (GT)

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Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plants

  • 130 BC – Hero of Alexandria’s reaction steam turbine
  • 1550 – Leonardo da Vinci’s “smoke mill”
  • 1629 – Giovanni Branca’s impulse steam turbine
  • 1791 – John Barber’s patent for steam turbine – “gas was produced from heated coal, mixed with air, compressed and then burnt to produce a high speed jet that impinged on radial blades on a turbine wheel rim”.

Topics – Simple Gas Turbines

  • Gas Turbines, Its Uses and History
  • Aero-Derivative Gas Turbine Developments
  • Operating Principle of a Gas Turbine
  • Ideal & Non-Ideal Brayton Cycle, Its Efficiency
  • Effects of Varying Compression Ratio
  • Modifications to Improve Efficiency
  • Gas Turbine Fuels
  • Gas Turbine Technologies
  • Advantages, Disadvantages of GT
  • Environmental Impact, Risks of GT

Price: 44 USD

Pulverized Coal

The file (1.59 MB) will cover the following topics:


Coal is formed from plants by chemical and geological processes which occur over million of years.

First product of this process was peat (partially decomposed stems, twigs, bark), then transformed into lignite, bituminous, then anthracite.

Coal is the largest source of energy for power and other uses:

Primary Energy Electricity

World: 23%                        40%

US: 55%

Philippines: 13%                        38%

Topics – Traditional Coal Thermal

  • Coal Resource : Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Types of Coal and Reserves
  • Properties of Coal, Coal-Mixtures and Classification by Rank
  • Examples of Pulverized Coal Boilers & Plants
  • Basic Principle of Pulverized Coal Thermal Plant
  • Coal Mining, Preparation, Transport, Storage, Pulverization & Firing
  • Pollution Control Technologies in Coal Plants
  • Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants
  • Cost of Coal-Fired Plants and Treatment (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Coal Plants in the Philippines
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 64 USD

Piston Engines

The file (138 KB) will cover the following topics:

Piston or Reciprocating Engines

4-Stroke medium speed diesel engines are mainly used for power generation on small islands, in remote areas and for industrial purposes. Medium speed technology is competitive for intermediate and base load power plants up to 200 MW: high levels of reliability and availability, rapid construction and installation, competitive capital cost and delivery times, and total efficiency approaching 90% for CHP plants.

Topics – Piston Engine

  • Piston Engine, Its Uses, Fuels
  • Types of Diesel Engines and Applications
  • Compression Ratio and Efficiency of Engines
  • Turbo-Charging of Engines
  • Engine Heat Balance
  • Basic Engine Construction & Support Systems
  • Cost of Diesel Power
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 30 USD

Oil Thermal

The file (1.21 MB) will cover the following topics:

Oil Thermal Energy

Rock oil” was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859 by a man drilling for water

Crude oil accounts for 40% of energy use worldwide: 3% of power comes from oil, 16% from natural gas.

High energy density, 43 MJ/kg (18,600 Btu/lb), and relatively clean burning, versatile.

Topics – Oil Thermal

  • Oil & Gas Resource: Origin, Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Properties of Liquid Fuels, Fuel Oils and Natural Gas
  • Basic Principle of Oil-Gas Thermal Plant
  • Ideal and Modified Rankine (Steam) Cycle Efficiency, Heat Rates
  • Oil-Gas Burners (Circular, S-type, Reduced NOx)
  • Reducing NOx Emissions (FGR, LEA, 2-stage air, Re-burning)
  • Emissions from Power Plants
  • Pollution Control Technologies used in Power Generation
  • Cost of Power Generation (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Oil-Thermal and Diesel Plants in the Philippines
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 42 USD

Fuel Properties

The file (220 KB) will cover the following topics:


  • Gross/Higher and Net/Lower Heating Value
  • Ultimate Analysis
  • Proximate Analysis
  • Fly Ash Analysis
  • Hardgrove Grindability Index
  • Density
  • Viscosity
  • Flash Point and Pour Point
  • Metal Content

Price: 40 USD

Fuel Cells

The file (566 KB) will cover the following topics:


Fuel Cell: an electrochemical device, closely related to the battery, that can generate electricity from hydrogen, which in turn can be extracted from natural gas or other hydrocarbon gases through a chemical process called reforming.

Topics – Fuel Cells

  • Fuel Cells, Its Uses and History
  • Fuel Cell Principle, Characteristics, Operating Conditions
  • Fuel Cell Concept for Power, Heat & Water
  • Balance of Plant Equipment
  • Fuel Cell Process Diagram, Hydrogen Gas Reformation
  • Types of Fuel Cells (AFC, PAFC, PEM, MCFC, SOFC)
  • Advanced Fuel Cell Technologies (CHP, Hybrid FC-GT-IGCC)
  • Cost of Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Cell Applications, Advantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

History of Fuel Cel

  • Hydrolysis – if an electrical voltage is applied to water by placing two electrodes into the liquid and attaching a battery to them, the voltage induces a chemical reaction: hydrogen is produced at one electrode and oxygen at the other
  • 1839 – Sir William Grove observed that the process known as “hydrolysis” can also go backwards – hydrogen will react at one electrode and oxygen at the other producing water and an electrical voltage between the electrodes. It was only a century later that Francis Bacon began to develop practical fuel cells.
  • 1950s – Pratt and Whitney (now United Technologies) licensed Bacon’s technology and developed it for the US space program. The Gemini, Apollo and space shuttle program all used fuel cells to generate electricity and produce drinking water on-board by just bringing hydrogen fuel and oxygen with them.

Fuel Cell Principle

  • If an electrical voltage is applied on water, by placing two electrodes into the liquid and attaching a DC battery to them, the voltage induces a chemical reaction; hydrogen and oxygen is produced at each electrode:

H2O + DC voltage è H2 + O2

  • In 1839, Sir William Grove observed this process, known as hydrolysis, can also go backwards – reversible. Hydrogen will react at one electrode and oxygen at the other, producing water and DC electrical voltage between the electrodes.
  • During reverse hydrolysis, hydrogen would act at one electrode and oxygen at the other, producing water, heat and electrical voltage (DC) between the electrodes.

Fuel (H2) + O2 + platinum catalyst è H20 + DC voltage

Fuel Cell Characteristics

  • Operates as a continuous battery – continuous fueling
  • Never needs recharging
  • Based on reverse hydrolysis – converts hydrogen and oxygen into water and electricity
  • Current depends on electrode area
  • Voltage depends on materials of construction, typically less than 1 volt.

Balance of Plant Equipment

  • Power-conditioning equipment needed are expensive
  • Fuel processing comprises a large part of cost and project development.
  • The front-end processing and fuel cell technology is affected by the fuel and application: Hydrogen, Natural gas, Methanol, Gasoline, Biomass, Coal

Price: 30 USD