How to Design a Mini-Hydro Power Plant

November 13th, 2015 No Comments   Posted in hydro power

How to Design a Mini-Hydro Power Plant


Excel programs to help you automate your design, optimize penstock diameter and determine economic viability and prepare feasibility studies

Take advantage of the Christmas Holiday Big Discount Sale.

Order now your top-of-the-line this December your advanced Excel programs for designing a mini-hydro to develop a number of design alternatives and run the project finance models at various exceedance (% of the time a given flow is exceeded) in order to optimize hydro plant capacity and configuration as well as determine the optimal penstock diameters.

Mini-hydro Power Plant Design Toolkit.xlsm

ADV Mini-hydro Power Plant Project Finance Model.xlsm

Sample Feasibility Study for a Mini-Hydro Power Project.pdf

To order, email me at my Gmail account:

To remit payment, use my PayPal account:

To download the complete article with the tables, pictures and graphs – please download the file below (click the link below):

How to Design a Mini-Hydro Power Plant – Copy

Here is the article (minus the tables, pictures and graphs):

Since time immemorial, the earth has been blessed with an endless cycle of rain falling from the sky, onto the watershed, flowing as run-off into the rivers, lakes, groundwater, and finally into the oceans where it picks up the Sun’s limitless energy to evaporate again and join the clouds, only to be cooled by the shadow of the earth as cold winds precipitate the saturated vapors that falls again to repeat the cycle. More »

Is Advanced Clean Coal the Answer to our Global Power Problem?

Is Advanced Clean Coal Technology the Answer to our Global Power Problem?

Remaining Life of Fossil Fuels (oil, natural gas, coal)

Recent events have thrust lately renewed interest in “advanced clean coal” technologies to provide additional power generation capacity in view of dwindling and expensive oil supplies (remaining life 39 years), natural gas (61 years). World wide coal reserves are expected to last over 231 years (remaining life = reserves / extraction rate).

However, due to concerns arising from pollution (emission of sulfur as SO2, toxic ash and heavy metals) and climate change (emission of CO2 greenhouse gases), the utilization of coal for power generation has spurred researches leading to the development and commercialization of so called “advanced clean coal” technologies. More »

Shall We Go Nuclear?

Shall We Go Nuclear?

Oil Crisis of 2008

The recent oil crisis which saw the rise of crude oil prices to a peak of $147 per barrel in the world market and its attendant effect on raising electricity prices in the Philippines at a rate higher than its competitor economies in the region has brought forth renewed calls to review policies relative to the development of the Philippine Nuclear Industry.

Revive the 600 MW BNPP?

In particular, attention has been directed toward reviving the mothballed 600 MW Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) constructed by the National Power Corporation in the early 1980’s. In its desire to be part of the growing list of nuclear power generation nations in the world, the Philippines implemented a national agenda that included the construction of the 600 MW BNPP in tandem with the 300 MW Kalayaan Pumped Storage Hydro Plant in 1982. The pumped storage would serve as a dummy load of the nuclear plant during off-peak periods at night in order to allow for a constant and stable generation of 600 MW of nuclear power throughout the entire day. (In the absence of the “cheap” nuclear electricity, the Laguna Lake water is pumped uphill to Lake Caliraya at night using geothermal, coal and sometimes expensive oil-based electricity in order to have adequate baseload capacity during day-time peak hours.)

Numerous Issues Hounded the BNPP

Unfortunately, or for reasons only Providence could imagine, the BNPP has been hounded with controversy ranging from allegations of overprice and corruption in the construction of the power plant, unsafe plant location being near an inactive volcano (Mt. Natib), being located near an active fault, possible long-term environmental harm to the nearby residents and Luzon populace in the event of accidental release of radio active gases and materials arising from a nuclear accident, unsafe plant design (pressurized water reactor or PWR), expensive electricity arising from its high cost per kW due to overprice (one 600 MW plant for the cost of two 600 MW plants as originally conceived), and of course, how to economically and safely dispose of the spent nuclear fuel material, radioactive control rods and other materials exposed to high levels of radiation.

More »

Large-Scale Project Finance Models

Large-Scale Project Finance Models:

  1. Oil Thermal Power Plant – 2,000 US$

  2. Pulverized Thermal Power Plant – 4,000 US$

  3. Advance Coal Thermal Power Plant – 6,000 US$

  4. Geothermal Power Plant – 8,000 US$

  5. Simple Gas Turbine Power Plant – 9,000 US$

  6. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant – 10,000 US$

  7. Energy Storage Power Plant – 12,000 US$*
  8. Solar Thermal Power Plant – 14,000 US$*
  9. Fuel Cells Power Plant – 16,000 US$*
  10. Ocean Thermal Power Plant – 18,000 US$*
  11. Ocean Wave Power Plant – 20,000 US$*
  12. Tidal Power Plant – 22,000 US$*
  13. Nuclear Power Plant – 30,000 US$*

*Please inquire about payment options directly to me.


1) Input (Assumption) Sheet

2) Report (Summary) Sheet

3) Project Cost Sheet (equipment cost, ocean freight, insurance, taxes & duties, brokerage & local shipping, erection & installation, land & right-of-way, project development & contract management, initial stocks & inventories, manpower mobilization & training, working capital, interest during construction, other capitalized expenses)

4) Construction Sheet (construction schedule, equity/loan drawdown, interest during construction)

5) Model Sheet (escalation of items, starting costs, capacity & degradation, heat rate & efficiency degradation, maintenance & overhaul scheduel, available hours, gross generation, plant use & net generation, transmission/distribution line constraints & losses, net electricity sales, revenue items, expense items, income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, project & equity IRR, project & equity payback, debt service cover ratio)

6) Depreciation Sheet (evolution of balance sheet accounts, working capital)

7) Loan Amortization Table (interest & principal repayment)

Energy Technology Road Map

March 12th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in power generation

The file (193 KB) will cover the following topics:


In its “Electricity Supply Roadmap, January 1999”, EPRI clarified the ultimate goal or vision for the power generation industry worldwide:

A robust portfolio of technologies that provide reliable, affordable electricity, with capacity and resource flexibility to meet global market needs – on a sustainable basis – with acceptable environmental impacts.

Implementation will vary from developed and developing countries, from region to region, based on indigenous resources and on economic, environmental and political factors, hence, the need for a portfolio of solutions.

Power Generation Technology Roadmap : Two Destinations

The EPRI Roadmap suggests destinations and identifies R&D opportunities over two nominal time frames:

Twenty years from now (2020) – to assess near-term opportunities and the technical foundations we will draw upon to reach 2050 goals

Fifty years from now (2050) – to encompass truly new and innovative technologies, not simple extrapolation of today’s development efforts. 50 years is deemed to be long enough to allow for capital stock turnover and widespread adoption of new technology. It also provides milestone for gauging progress toward broader goals for energy use by 2100.

Price: 40 USD

Solar Energy

The file (871 KB) will cover the following topics:

Solar energy has potential of supplying all our energy needs for: electric, thermal, process, chemical and even transportation; however, it is very diffuse, cyclic and often undependable because of varying weather conditions.

  • Sun – largest object in our solar system; outer visible layer called photosphere has temperature of 6,000 C
  • Sunlight or solar energy – main source of energy for wind, hydro, ocean and biomass.

Price: 34USD

Simple Gas Turbine (GT)

The file (525 KB) will cover the following topics:

Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plants

  • 130 BC – Hero of Alexandria’s reaction steam turbine
  • 1550 – Leonardo da Vinci’s “smoke mill”
  • 1629 – Giovanni Branca’s impulse steam turbine
  • 1791 – John Barber’s patent for steam turbine – “gas was produced from heated coal, mixed with air, compressed and then burnt to produce a high speed jet that impinged on radial blades on a turbine wheel rim”.

Topics – Simple Gas Turbines

  • Gas Turbines, Its Uses and History
  • Aero-Derivative Gas Turbine Developments
  • Operating Principle of a Gas Turbine
  • Ideal & Non-Ideal Brayton Cycle, Its Efficiency
  • Effects of Varying Compression Ratio
  • Modifications to Improve Efficiency
  • Gas Turbine Fuels
  • Gas Turbine Technologies
  • Advantages, Disadvantages of GT
  • Environmental Impact, Risks of GT

Price: 44 USD

Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

The file (69 KB) will cover the following topics:

Renewable Sources of Energy

  • Geothermal Energy (radioactive decay and initial heat of earth)
  • Solar Energy (radiation from sun)
  • Hydro
  • Solar PV and Solar Thermal
  • Wind
  • Biomass and Wastes
  • Ocean Thermal
  • Ocean Wave, Ocean Current
  • Tidal Energy (gravitational pull of moon and earth’s rotation)
  • Hydrogen Energy (from biomass and water)

Price: 10 USD

Pulverized Coal

The file (1.59 MB) will cover the following topics:


Coal is formed from plants by chemical and geological processes which occur over million of years.

First product of this process was peat (partially decomposed stems, twigs, bark), then transformed into lignite, bituminous, then anthracite.

Coal is the largest source of energy for power and other uses:

Primary Energy Electricity

World: 23%                        40%

US: 55%

Philippines: 13%                        38%

Topics – Traditional Coal Thermal

  • Coal Resource : Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Types of Coal and Reserves
  • Properties of Coal, Coal-Mixtures and Classification by Rank
  • Examples of Pulverized Coal Boilers & Plants
  • Basic Principle of Pulverized Coal Thermal Plant
  • Coal Mining, Preparation, Transport, Storage, Pulverization & Firing
  • Pollution Control Technologies in Coal Plants
  • Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants
  • Cost of Coal-Fired Plants and Treatment (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Coal Plants in the Philippines
  • Applicability, Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 64 USD

Piston Engines

The file (138 KB) will cover the following topics:

Piston or Reciprocating Engines

4-Stroke medium speed diesel engines are mainly used for power generation on small islands, in remote areas and for industrial purposes. Medium speed technology is competitive for intermediate and base load power plants up to 200 MW: high levels of reliability and availability, rapid construction and installation, competitive capital cost and delivery times, and total efficiency approaching 90% for CHP plants.

Topics – Piston Engine

  • Piston Engine, Its Uses, Fuels
  • Types of Diesel Engines and Applications
  • Compression Ratio and Efficiency of Engines
  • Turbo-Charging of Engines
  • Engine Heat Balance
  • Basic Engine Construction & Support Systems
  • Cost of Diesel Power
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 30 USD

Oil Thermal

The file (1.21 MB) will cover the following topics:

Oil Thermal Energy

Rock oil” was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859 by a man drilling for water

Crude oil accounts for 40% of energy use worldwide: 3% of power comes from oil, 16% from natural gas.

High energy density, 43 MJ/kg (18,600 Btu/lb), and relatively clean burning, versatile.

Topics – Oil Thermal

  • Oil & Gas Resource: Origin, Reserves, Extraction Rate, Life Time
  • Properties of Liquid Fuels, Fuel Oils and Natural Gas
  • Basic Principle of Oil-Gas Thermal Plant
  • Ideal and Modified Rankine (Steam) Cycle Efficiency, Heat Rates
  • Oil-Gas Burners (Circular, S-type, Reduced NOx)
  • Reducing NOx Emissions (FGR, LEA, 2-stage air, Re-burning)
  • Emissions from Power Plants
  • Pollution Control Technologies used in Power Generation
  • Cost of Power Generation (Capital, O&M, Levelized)
  • Oil-Thermal and Diesel Plants in the Philippines
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 42 USD

Ocean Energy

The file (657 KB) will cover the following topics:


Wave energy – winds generate large ocean waves that can be used to generate power from its potential and kinetic energy.

Ocean temperature energy conversion (OTEC) – temperature gradient between the surface and bottom of the ocean can be utilized in a heat engine to generate power

Tidal energy – caused by lunar and solar gravitational forces acting together with that from the earth on the ocean waters to create tidal flows manifested by the rise and fall of waters that vary daily and seasonally from a few centimeters up to 8-10 meters in some parts of the world. The potential energy of the tides is tapped to generate power.

Topics – Ocean Energy

  • Ocean Energy
  • Energy from Oceans (OTEC, Wave, Hydro, Tidal)
  • Efficiency & Types of OTEC (Open, Closed, Hybrid)
  • Ocean Waves: Potential, Progressive Wave Motion, Power Density
  • Devices that Convert Ocean Wave to Energy
  • Ocean Wave Power Plants
  • Tidal Energy, Its Potential
  • Types of Tidal Power Plants (Single-Pool, Modulated, Two-Pool)
  • Tidal Energy Power Plants
  • Cost of Ocean & Tidal Power
  • Benefits from Ocean & Tidal Energy
  • Environmental Impact & Risks

Price: 26 USD

Nuclear Energy

The file (781 KB) will cover the following topics:

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power – most controversial of all forms of power generation

Operating principle – Controlled nuclear fission in a reactor using uranium as fuel produces heat, which is captured to produce steam. The steam is used to drive a steam turbine, which in turn drives an electric generator.

Topics – Nuclear Energy

  • Nuclear Energy, Its Uses and History
  • Nuclear Power Capacity and Power Generation
  • Fundamentals of Nuclear Power
  • Types of Nuclear Reactors
  • BWR, PWR, AGR, HTGR, Breeder, GT-MHR
  • Cost of Nuclear Power
  • Environmental Considerations
  • Risks

Price: 70 USD

Near-Term Energy Sources

March 12th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in energy sources, power generation

The file (576 KB) will cover the following topics:

Near Term (within 20 years)

  • Coal Direct Liquefaction
  • Coal Indirect Liquefaction
  • Coal Pyrolysis
  • Petrothermal – Hot Dry Rock

Price: 70 USD

Long Term Energy Fuel Cycles

March 11th, 2009 No Comments   Posted in energy sources, power generation

The file (373 KB) will cover the following topics:

Long Term (20 – 50 years)

  • Nuclear Fission
  • Oil Shale
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Hydrogen
  • Petrothermal – Magma

Price: 70 USD

Hydrogen Energy

The file (91 KB) will cover the following topics:


Hydrogen – 3rd most abundant element on earth’s surface; found primarily in water [H2O] and organic compounds and generally produced from hydrocarbons thru reforming and water thru electrolysis.

When burned as fuel or converted to electricity, it joins with oxygen [O2] again to form water.

Price: 20 USD

Hydro Power

The file (633 KB) will cover the following topics:

Hydro Power

Flowing water creates energy that can be stored, captured and turned into electricity. Hydropower is the world’s most important renewable energy source. It provides 7.2% of world’s primary energy and 18.5% of electric power generation.

Price: 26 USD

History of Power Generation

The file (549 KB) will cover the following topics:


  • 1878 – Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison independently invented the carbon filament that produced light from electricity – incandescent lamp.
  • 1879 – Thomas Edison founded the electric company, his greatest achievement – “Edison Electric Light Station”.
  • 1882 – Carl de Laval invented steam turbine that drove electric generators more efficiently than earlier reciprocating steam engines. Coal then oil was used.
  • 1884 – Charles Parsons constructs the first practical steam turbine electric generator to be driven by fuel-burning power plants in the electric power industry.
  • 1895 – Niagara Falls – world’s first large-scale central generating station transmitts power 20 miles away to Buffalo and it employed 2-phase AC techniques of Nikola Tesla.
  • 1905 – Albert Einstein publishes his “Theory of Relativity” and the equation E = m c2, foundation of nuclear power.
  • 1907 – a new material called tungsten was used to replace carbon strips of bamboo as filament in the incandescent lamps

Other inventions that used electricity – electric trams and railways for urban transport, telephone and telegraph, phonograph, radio and television, incandescent and fluorescent lighting, electric motors and electric heating, refrigeration and air conditioning, computers and electronics – accelerated the need for larger and reliable generating plants.

Price: 11 USD

Geothermal Energy

The file (689 KB) will cover the following topics:


  • heat (thermal) from the earth (geo)
  • thermal energy in the rock and fluid that fills fractures and pores within the rock in the earth’s crust.

The earth’s initial energy from its molten state is sustained thru energy input from the sun and radioactive decay deep within the earth.

Price: 28 USD

Generation of Electricity

The file (3.22 MB) will cover the following topics:


Electricity – most sophisticated form of energy in use in the world today
Primary way to meet growing demand – build power plants or repower old plants to raise capacity

Electricity is the flow of electrons (current) when an energy potential (voltage) is applied.

Generation of Electricity

  • How is electricity generated?
  • Three types of materials
  • How does an electric field look?
  • Electric energy potential
  • Electric potential & current
  • Right hand rule
  • Electromotive force emf
  • Electric motors
  • Principle of electric generator
  • How is mechanical energy produced?

Price: 64 USD