How to calculate power plant emissions – by mass

April 9th, 2015 No Comments   Posted in power plant emissions

How to calculate power plant emissions – by mass

Yes, your technology expert has prepared an easy to understand and to use Excel model for calculating power plant emissions by mass. It costs only USD 126. So please order now.

Meaning, given the fuel mass rate and fuel composition, power output and capacity factor, the model will calculate the mass flow rate of the emissions (not including the excess air components).

If you need to know the flue gas mass rate and volumetric rate, then you have to purchase also my other model – power plant emissions by concentration. You may order now for only USD 200. More »

New 2013 Price List of my Project Finance Models & Technical Tool Kits

January 17th, 2013 1 Comment   Posted in financial models

New 2013 Price List of my Project Finance Models & Technical Tool Kits

After the successful sale of my models and tool kits, I am happy to annouce the new price lists of my financial models, optimization tools and power plant emission calculation tool kits.

Order now this Christmass and get a whooping 50% discount on all articles and models. Hurry, this offer ends December 31, 2013. And if you buy two articles or models, the third one will be free! Order now and email me.

More »

Model for Calculating Power Plant Emissions and outsourcing emission calculations

May 1st, 2010 No Comments   Posted in power plant emissions

Calculating Power Plant Emissions for sale and outsourcing emission calculations

A spreadsheet model for calculating power plant emissions has been developed by your energy technology selection expert.

The calculation procedure is straight forward.  The user inputs the ultimate (elemental) fuel analysis (%C, %H, %S, %O, %N, % moisture, % ash), excess air ratio (% excess air of % excess O2 in the flue gas) and a flue gas material balance will yield the wet and dry gas analysis of the flue gas (%CO2, % H2O, %SO2, %O2, %N2).  Products of partial combustion (e.g. CO) and NOx (NO2, N2O) are not covered by this model since they are a factor of dissociation reactions and require complex equilibrium models.

If the fuel has substantial Sulfur and it needs to be removed (scrubber, limestone addition), the model will calculate the minimum sulfur removal efficiency that needs to be attained by the equipment to meet environmental standards (as %SO2, as ppm SO2, as mg SO2/normal cubic meter, as gram SO2 per kWh, etc).

Please email me your exact problem, input data and expected outputs to be calculated so I may be able to respond to your needs.  The cost of the model and any customization works would have to be negotiated based on your specifications.


Marcial Ocampo

Energy Technology Selection and Business Development Consultant More »

How to calculate power plant emissions – solution to problem of a reader

How to calculate power plant emissions – solution to problem of reader


Please find on the next page a snippet of my spreadsheet showing the solution.  The model was calibrated to the above municipal solid fuel analysis at 80% excess air firing for combustion of municipal solid waste to meet the given SO2 emission of 15.75 mg/Nm3.

Assuming 26% thermal efficiency and given firing rate of 185,000 metric tons per year of 7018 hours (around 80% capacity factor), your plant must be generating over 52.41 MW of power with 9% plant own use (parasitic load assumed).

The fuel should have a sulfur analysis of 0.57% Sulfur (dry basis) in order to give such emission.

At 31.30% moisture in the wet fuel, this translates to 0.39% Sulfur (wet basis).

Once the sulfur in the wet fuel is known, the problem is solved:

kg SO2 per metric ton fuel (wet) = (0.39 / 100) x (mw of SO2 / mw of S) x (1000 kg / metric ton)

= (0.39 / 100) x (64.0648 / 32.0660) x (1000) = 7.806 kg SO2 per metric ton (tonne) of wet fuel More »

How to Calculate Power Plant Emissions – a simplified procedure in a spreadsheet


By: Marcial T. Ocampo

September 16, 2009

Basic steps:

1)         Input natural gas (fuel) analysis: % volume (same as % mol), molecular weights:

e.g. H2, CH4, C2H6, C3H8 … CO2, S, O2, N2, H2O moisture, ash.

2)         Convert % volume to ultimate analysis % mass or weight (%C, %H2, % S, % O2, %N2, %H2O moisture, ash)

3)         From the combustion equations;

C + O2 = CO2

S + O2 = S02

H2 + 1/2 O2 = H20

calculate the stoichiometric O2 in mols and lbs and that of N2 from air analysis. More »

Energy Technology Expert – my expertise and services

Where to Get Assistance for Energy & Electricity Investment Opportunities in the Philippines

Marcial Ocampo provides a blog on issues and concerns regarding current and future fuel cycles and power generation technologies as they affect the environment, fuel supplies and power generation capacities, efficiency of utilization of fuel or energy resource, pollution & greenhouse gas emissions, and cost of power (overnight capital cost $/kW) and energy (levelized $/kWh).

He provides market, technical and economic feasibility studies and prepares project finance models for determining asset value (bid price), levelized price of energy or electricity, or equity returns (DCF IRR).

He is also familiar with investment opportunities in the Philippine energy and electricity sector (Philippine Energy Plan, Power Development Plan) and the regulatory framework (EPIRA and RE laws,  implementing rules and regulations, Distribution Code, Grid Code) for purchasing a power plant from PSALM/NPC or for putting up a new power plant (conventional, fossil or renewable).

He can guide you in securing incentives under the latest Philippine Renewable Energy (RE) law and its implementing rules and regulations (IRR).

In addition, he could guide you in securing the needed endorsement from the Philippine Department of Energy (DOE), permits and licenses from the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) and other government agencies (DTI, SEC, BIR, DENR, EMB, NWRB, PNRI, DOLE, NTC, BOC, PPA, ATO, PDEA, BOI, NCIP and LGUs) in order that the facility is duly licensed to operate as a power generation facility with an electricity tariff that is the “best new entrant” for the given location and application in order to balance the need of the customers for affordable electricity and the need of the investor to meet its investment return criteria.

Should you need assistance in preparing a project finance model and a feasibility study (market, technical, economic, financial) using Philippine oil, energy and electricity data, please don’t hesitate to contact Marcial.

email:   and

tel/fax: (632)-932-5530 More »

Fuel & Energy Technology Expert is Here

Fuel & Energy Technology Expert is Here

Marcial Ocampo, your favorite energy technology expert, is here to provide you latest information on:

1) energy and oil prices (international and domestic pump price calculation)

2) renewable energy and non-renewable energy and electricity

3) cost of power generation – capital and O&M cost

4) levelized cost of energy and electricity

5) Philippine energy and electricity demand and supply

6) project finance and financial modeling

7) power plant efficiency and performance

8) project feasibility studies for biofuels and power plant (market, technical, economic and financial)

Examples of Power Generation Technologies in commercial use are as follows:

Oil – Gas Thermal

Reciprocating / Piston Engine:

Small or High-Speed
Medium Speed
Large or Slow Speed
Combined Cycle – Waste Heat Boiler

Natural Gas – Simple GT:

Aero-Derivative GT
With Recuperation
Humid Air Turbine (HAT)
Cascaded Humid Air Turbine (CHAT)
Heavy Frame GT

Natural Gas – Combined Cycle GT


Pulverized Coal PC
Atmospheric CFB
Pressurized FBC
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC
Integrated Gasification Humid Air Turbine IGHAT
Direct Coal-Fired Combined Cycle DCCC
Supercritical & Ultra-Supercritical Coal Comb.

Nuclear Fission:

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), advanced
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR):
– Candu Reactor
High Temp. Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR)
Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)
Breeder Reactors

Nuclear Fusion


– Pelton Turbine – 50-6,000 ft head
– Francis Turbine – 10-2,000 ft head
– Propeller Turbine – 10 – 300 ft head:
– Kaplan Turbine
Small / Mini

Energy Storage:

Pumped Hydro
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) – Huntorf:
– Large CAES
– Small CAES
– Above Ground CAES
Flywheel Systems
Utility Scale Batteries (USB):
– Lead acid
– Advanced
Stored Hydrogen
Superconduction Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)


Dry Steam (Vapor)
Flashed Steam (Single, Double)
Binary Cycle
Petrothermal (Hot Dry Rock)
Geothermal Preheat
Fossil Superheat


Solar PV:

Crystalline silicon
Thin film – Amorphous Silicon
Thin film – Indium Diselenide
Flat Plate
High Efficiency Multi Junction (IHCPV)

Solar Thermal:
Salt Pond (power + water)

Fuel Cells:

Alkaline (AFC)
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
Proton Exchange Membrane  (PEM)
Direct Methanol (DMFC)
Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
Solid Oxide-GT  (SOFC-GT)


Direct Combustion
Co-firing with Coal
Biomass Gasification (BIGCC)
Municipal Waste Treatment

Landfill Gas (40 – 60% CH4)
Anaerobic Digestion Biogas (65% CH4)
Sewage Treatment

Ocean Thermal:

Claude (open cycle)
Controlled Flash Evaporation (open)
Anderson (closed cycle)

Ocean Wave:

Oscillating Water Column (OWC)
Hydraulic Accumulator
High Level Reservoir
Float or Pitching Devices
Wave Surge or Focusing (“tapchan”)

Tidal Power:

Single Pool
Modulated Single Pool w/ Pumped Hydro
Two Pool

Additional technologies provided by readers of this blog:

Waste Heat Recovery: (from Alan Belcher’s comments)

Steam Rankine Cycle (Recycled Energy Development, Inc.)

Organic Rankine Cycle (Ormat Technologies, Inc.)*

Low Temperature Brayton Cycle (Pegasus Energy Project, Inc.)