Posts Tagged ‘power plant emissions’
How to calculate power plant emissions – by mass
Yes, your technology expert has prepared an easy to understand and to use Excel model for calculating power plant emissions by mass. It costs only USD 126. So please order now.
Meaning, given the fuel mass rate and fuel composition, power output and capacity factor, the model will calculate the mass flow rate of the emissions (not including the excess air components).
If you need to know the flue gas mass rate and volumetric rate, then you have to purchase also my other model – power plant emissions by concentration. You may order now for only USD 200. More »
New 2013 Price List of my Project Finance Models & Technical Tool Kits
After the successful sale of my models and tool kits, I am happy to annouce the new price lists of my financial models, optimization tools and power plant emission calculation tool kits.
Order now this Christmass and get a whooping 50% discount on all articles and models. Hurry, this offer ends December 31, 2013. And if you buy two articles or models, the third one will be free! Order now and email me.
Calculating Power Plant Emissions for sale and outsourcing emission calculations
A spreadsheet model for calculating power plant emissions has been developed by your energy technology selection expert.
The calculation procedure is straight forward. The user inputs the ultimate (elemental) fuel analysis (%C, %H, %S, %O, %N, % moisture, % ash), excess air ratio (% excess air of % excess O2 in the flue gas) and a flue gas material balance will yield the wet and dry gas analysis of the flue gas (%CO2, % H2O, %SO2, %O2, %N2). Products of partial combustion (e.g. CO) and NOx (NO2, N2O) are not covered by this model since they are a factor of dissociation reactions and require complex equilibrium models.
If the fuel has substantial Sulfur and it needs to be removed (scrubber, limestone addition), the model will calculate the minimum sulfur removal efficiency that needs to be attained by the equipment to meet environmental standards (as %SO2, as ppm SO2, as mg SO2/normal cubic meter, as gram SO2 per kWh, etc).
Please email me your exact problem, input data and expected outputs to be calculated so I may be able to respond to your needs. The cost of the model and any customization works would have to be negotiated based on your specifications.
Energy Technology Selection and Business Development Consultant
email@example.com More »
Tags: power plant emissions
How to calculate power plant emissions – solution to problem of reader
Please find on the next page a snippet of my spreadsheet showing the solution. The model was calibrated to the above municipal solid fuel analysis at 80% excess air firing for combustion of municipal solid waste to meet the given SO2 emission of 15.75 mg/Nm3.
Assuming 26% thermal efficiency and given firing rate of 185,000 metric tons per year of 7018 hours (around 80% capacity factor), your plant must be generating over 52.41 MW of power with 9% plant own use (parasitic load assumed).
The fuel should have a sulfur analysis of 0.57% Sulfur (dry basis) in order to give such emission.
At 31.30% moisture in the wet fuel, this translates to 0.39% Sulfur (wet basis).
Once the sulfur in the wet fuel is known, the problem is solved:
kg SO2 per metric ton fuel (wet) = (0.39 / 100) x (mw of SO2 / mw of S) x (1000 kg / metric ton)
= (0.39 / 100) x (64.0648 / 32.0660) x (1000) = 7.806 kg SO2 per metric ton (tonne) of wet fuel More »
PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING POWER PLANT EMISSIONS
By: Marcial T. Ocampo
September 16, 2009
1) Input natural gas (fuel) analysis: % volume (same as % mol), molecular weights:
e.g. H2, CH4, C2H6, C3H8 … CO2, S, O2, N2, H2O moisture, ash.
2) Convert % volume to ultimate analysis % mass or weight (%C, %H2, % S, % O2, %N2, %H2O moisture, ash)
3) From the combustion equations;
C + O2 = CO2
S + O2 = S02
H2 + 1/2 O2 = H20
calculate the stoichiometric O2 in mols and lbs and that of N2 from air analysis. More »
Where to Get Assistance for Energy & Electricity Investment Opportunities in the Philippines
Marcial Ocampo provides a blog on issues and concerns regarding current and future fuel cycles and power generation technologies as they affect the environment, fuel supplies and power generation capacities, efficiency of utilization of fuel or energy resource, pollution & greenhouse gas emissions, and cost of power (overnight capital cost $/kW) and energy (levelized $/kWh).
He provides market, technical and economic feasibility studies and prepares project finance models for determining asset value (bid price), levelized price of energy or electricity, or equity returns (DCF IRR).
He is also familiar with investment opportunities in the Philippine energy and electricity sector (Philippine Energy Plan, Power Development Plan) and the regulatory framework (EPIRA and RE laws, implementing rules and regulations, Distribution Code, Grid Code) for purchasing a power plant from PSALM/NPC or for putting up a new power plant (conventional, fossil or renewable).
He can guide you in securing incentives under the latest Philippine Renewable Energy (RE) law and its implementing rules and regulations (IRR).
In addition, he could guide you in securing the needed endorsement from the Philippine Department of Energy (DOE), permits and licenses from the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) and other government agencies (DTI, SEC, BIR, DENR, EMB, NWRB, PNRI, DOLE, NTC, BOC, PPA, ATO, PDEA, BOI, NCIP and LGUs) in order that the facility is duly licensed to operate as a power generation facility with an electricity tariff that is the “best new entrant” for the given location and application in order to balance the need of the customers for affordable electricity and the need of the investor to meet its investment return criteria.
Should you need assistance in preparing a project finance model and a feasibility study (market, technical, economic, financial) using Philippine oil, energy and electricity data, please don’t hesitate to contact Marcial.
email: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
tel/fax: (632)-932-5530 More »
Tags: add new tag, biodiesel, bioethanol, biofuels, CME, coconut metyl ester, cost, cost of power generation, demand management, electricity, end-use management, energy audits, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy pricing expert, energy resources, energy sources, environmental impacts, financial modeling expert, fuel properties, fuels, oil crisis, oil pump prices, pollution emissions, power, power generation, power generation technologies, power generation technology, power plant, power plant design, power plant emissions, power supply, renewable energy sources, renewable sources of electricity, renewable sources of energy
Fuel & Energy Technology Expert is Here
Marcial Ocampo, your favorite energy technology expert, is here to provide you latest information on:
1) energy and oil prices (international and domestic pump price calculation)
2) renewable energy and non-renewable energy and electricity
3) cost of power generation – capital and O&M cost
4) levelized cost of energy and electricity
5) Philippine energy and electricity demand and supply
6) project finance and financial modeling
7) power plant efficiency and performance
8) project feasibility studies for biofuels and power plant (market, technical, economic and financial)
Examples of Power Generation Technologies in commercial use are as follows:
Oil – Gas Thermal
Reciprocating / Piston Engine:
Small or High-Speed
Large or Slow Speed
Combined Cycle – Waste Heat Boiler
Natural Gas – Simple GT:
Humid Air Turbine (HAT)
Cascaded Humid Air Turbine (CHAT)
Heavy Frame GT
Natural Gas – Combined Cycle GT
Pulverized Coal PC
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC
Integrated Gasification Humid Air Turbine IGHAT
Direct Coal-Fired Combined Cycle DCCC
Supercritical & Ultra-Supercritical Coal Comb.
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), advanced
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR):
– Candu Reactor
High Temp. Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR)
Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)
– Pelton Turbine – 50-6,000 ft head
– Francis Turbine – 10-2,000 ft head
– Propeller Turbine – 10 – 300 ft head:
– Kaplan Turbine
Small / Mini
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) – Huntorf:
– Large CAES
– Small CAES
– Above Ground CAES
Utility Scale Batteries (USB):
– Lead acid
Superconduction Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
Dry Steam (Vapor)
Flashed Steam (Single, Double)
Petrothermal (Hot Dry Rock)
Thin film – Amorphous Silicon
Thin film – Indium Diselenide
High Efficiency Multi Junction (IHCPV)
Salt Pond (power + water)
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
Direct Methanol (DMFC)
Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
Solid Oxide-GT (SOFC-GT)
Co-firing with Coal
Biomass Gasification (BIGCC)
Municipal Waste Treatment
Landfill Gas (40 – 60% CH4)
Anaerobic Digestion Biogas (65% CH4)
Claude (open cycle)
Controlled Flash Evaporation (open)
Anderson (closed cycle)
Oscillating Water Column (OWC)
High Level Reservoir
Float or Pitching Devices
Wave Surge or Focusing (“tapchan”)
Modulated Single Pool w/ Pumped Hydro
Additional technologies provided by readers of this blog:
Waste Heat Recovery: (from Alan Belcher’s comments)
Steam Rankine Cycle (Recycled Energy Development, Inc.)
Organic Rankine Cycle (Ormat Technologies, Inc.)*
Low Temperature Brayton Cycle (Pegasus Energy Project, Inc.)
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