How to use the advanced (regulator) mini-hydro power plant project finance model

July 9th, 2017 No Comments   Posted in financial models

How to use the advanced (regulator) mini-hydro power plant project finance model

(Lord God, bless my website and my readers that they will contribute to my charity fund for the jobless, sickly, needy, homeless, hungry and destitute. God Bless you all my friends for reading my blog and ordering my project finance models. Amen.)

Finding an easy-to-use project finance model for a mini-hydro power plant with built-in data is sometimes difficult as some models don’t have the sophistication of a regulator template model as well as the ease of using the model and viewing immediately the results of a sensitivity change in the inputs to the model.

This is now made easy because the Input & Assumptions worksheet (tab) has combined all the input and output information in a single worksheet and placing the reports in other worksheets such as Tariff Breakdown, Construction Period, Operating Period, Financial Reports and Levelized Tariff.

Following is a sample case study on a mini-hydro power plant. From the preliminary design and cost estimates, the top management would want to know if the business idea of going into mini-hydro power development, construction and operation is worth the effort – is it feasible and what are the economic and financial returns for risking capital.

Here are the inputs and outputs of the advanced template model from OMT ENERGY ENTERPRISES:

——————————————————————————————-

Here are the summary of inputs:

all-in capital cost (overnight cost) = 3,523 $/kW (target cost)

EPC cost portion = 2,434 $/kW (computed by model)

refurbishment cost = 5% of EPC cost on the 12th year (overhaul)

fixed O&M cost = 16.96 $/kW/year (target cost) = 33.94 ‘000$/unit/year (computed by goal seek)

variable O&M cost = 2.40 $/MWh (target cost) = 8.73 ‘000$/MW/year (computed by goal seek)

general admin cost = 20.00 ‘000$/year (target cost)

 

Thermal power plant inputs: (not used in mini-hydro)

Gross heating value of biomass fuel = 5,198 Btu/lb

Plant heat rate = 12,186 Btu/kWh (28.00% thermal efficiency)

Cost of biomass fuel = 1.299 PhP/kg = 1,299 PhP/MT

 

Lube oil consumption rate = 0.54 gram/kWh

Density of lube oil = 0.980 kg/Liter

Cost of lube oil = 200.00 PhP/Liter

 

capacity = 3.60 MW/unit x 1 unit = 3.60 MW

 

Plant Availability Factor, %                                        48.06% (computed by goal seek)

Load Factor, %                                                              92.00% (assumed)

Allowance for losses & own use, %                            2.00% (assumed)

Net Capacity Factor after losses & own use, %       43.33% (target net capacity factor)

Degradation rate, %                                                      0.5%

 

construction period = 24 months (start 2014)

operating period = 25 years (start 2016)

 

Capital cost estimation assumptions and % local cost (LC):

Power plant footprint (ha)                                   1.00

Cost of purchased land (PhP/sqm)                    25.00 (no land lease)

Land cost, $000 $4.97 100.0%
Equipment Cost ex BOP, Transport ($000/MW) $2,064.54 43.0%
Insurance, Ocean Freight, Local Transport, % of Equipment Cost 4.5% 100.0%
Balance of Plant (BOP), % of Equipment Cost 10.0% 80.0%
Transmission Line Distance (km) 3.50
T/L Cost per km, 69 kV ($000/km) $84.00 100.0%
Switchyard & Transformers ($000) $500.00 100.0%
Access Roads ($000/km) $20.00 100.0%
Distance of Access Road (km) 3.50
Dev’t & Other Costs (land, permits, etc) (% of EPC) 2.5% 100.0%
VAT on importation (70% recoverable) 12% 100.0%
Customs Duty 0% 100.0%
Initial Working Capital (% of EPC) 5.0% 100.0%
Contingency (% of Total Cost) 7.5% 50.0%

 

Capital cost breakdown (‘000$): (computed values)

Uses of Fund:
   Land Cost $5
   EPC (Equipment, Balance of Plant, Transport) $8,510
   Transmission Line Interconnection Facility $294
   Sub-Station Facility $500
   Development & Other Costs (Civil Works, Customs Duty) $283
   Construction Contingency $719
   Value Added Tax $569
   Financing Costs $988
   Initial Working Capital $426
Total Uses of Fund – $000 $12,293
                                 – PhP 000 618,317
Sources of Fund:
   Debt $8,605
   Equity $3,688
Total Sources of Fund $12,293

 

Local and Foreign Cost Components (from individual cost item):

Local Capital   = 58%

Foreign Capital = 42%

 

Balance Sheet Accounts:

Receivables = 30 days of revenue

Payables     = 30 days of expenses

Inventory     = 60 days of consumables

 

Imported Capital Equipment:

Customs duty = 0%

Value added tax (VAT) = 12%

VAT recovery = 70% on 5th year of operation

 

Type of input / output VAT = 0 (none)

Type of incentives = 2 (BOI incentives)

 

Tax Assumptions:

 

Income Tax Holiday (yrs) 7
Income Tax Rate % (after ITH) 10%
Property tax (from COD) 1.5%
Property tax valuation rate (% of NBV) 80%
Local Business Tax 1.0%
Government Share (from COD) 1.0%
ER 1-94 Contribution (PhP/kWh) 0.0100
Withholding Tax on Interest (Foreign Currency) – WHT 10%
Gross Receipts Tax on Interest (Local Currency) – GRT 5%
Documentary Stamps Tax (DST) 0.5%
PEZA Incentives (% of gross income) – 0% / 5% 0%
Royalty to NIA 2%

 

Capital Structure:

Equity Share = 30% at 16.44% p.a. target equity returns (IRR)

Debt Share   = 70% (58% local, 42% foreign)

 

Debt Terms:

 

Local & Foreign Upfront & Financing Fees 2.00%
Local & Foreign Commitment Fees 0.50%
Local All-in Interest Rate excluding tax 10.00%
Local Debt Payment Period (from end of GP) (yrs) 10
Foreign All-in Interest Rate excluding tax 8.00%
Foreign Debt Payment Period (from end of GP) (yrs) 10
Local and Foreign Grace Period from COD (mos) 6
Local and Foreign debt Service Reserve (mos) 6

 

Foreign Exchange Rate:

Base Foreign Exchange Rate (PhP/US$) – 2013            48.0000 (construction)

Forward Fixed Exchange Rate (PhP/US$) – 2014           50.2971 (operating)

 

Escalation (CPI):

Annual Local CPI – for OPEX        0.0%            4.0%      for CAPEX (to model construction delay)

Annual US CPI – for OPEX            0.0%            2.0%      for CAPEX (to model construction delay)

 

Results of Financial Analysis:

 

First year electricity tariff (Feed-in-Tariff) = 7.9414 PhP/kWh = 0.1579 USD/kWh

(at zero equity NPV)

 

Short run marginal cost (SRMC) and Long run marginal cost (LRMC)

Item PhP 000 PhP/kWh
Fuel                      – 0.000
Lubes                    36 0.000
Var O&M              39,514 0.123
Total              39,551 0.123
MWh net            321,142
SRMC              39,551 0.123
Fix O&M            258,711 0.806
Capital Cost        2,252,058 7.013
LRMC        2,550,320 7.941

 

 

Equity Returns: (30% equity, 70% debt)

IRR           = 16.44     % p.a. (target returns)

NPV         = 0.00     ‘000$

PAYBACK = 7.82     years

 

Project Returns: (100% equity, 0% debt)

IRR           = 13.33         % p.a.

NPV         = (87,029)   ‘000$ (negative since IRR < 16.44%)

PAYBACK = 6.37         years

——————————————————————————————-

The above runs were based on goal-seek to make equity NPV = 0 (to meet equity IRR target of 16.44% p.a.).

You can perform sensitivity analysis and save the results in a case column (copy paste value).

You can breakdown the tariff ($/kWh) into its capital ($/kW-month) and variable cost recovery ($/kWh) portions.

You can prepare all-in capital cost breakdown showing interest cost during construction and does model the impact of project construction delays.

You can show the evolution of capacity and generation (degradation) during the operating period and show other revenues, expenses and balance sheet accounts as they change over time during operation years.

You can show the income & expense statement.

You can show the cash flow statement.

You can show the balance sheet.

You can show the debt service cover ratio (DSCR) as it computes the cash flow available for debt service.

It also computes the benefits to cost ratio (B/C) of the project.

Finally, it computes the other financial ratios such as:

LIQUIDITY RATIOS

SOLVENCY RATIOS

EFFICIENCY RATIOS

PROFITABILITY RATIOS

MARKET PROSPECT RATIOS

 

Download the sample file below:

Model Inputs and Results – Mini-hydro

 

Download the complete demo model for a mini-hydro power plant in PHP and USD currencies are shown below:

ADV Mini-Hydro Model3 – demo5b

ADV Mini-Hydro Model3 (USD) – demo5b

 

To purchase the PHP and USD models at a discount (only USD400 for two models), click the link below:

Mini-Hydro Project Finance Model Ver. 3 – in USD and PHP Currency

 

You may place your order now and avail of a package for the unlocked model with free guidance on using it. The list price of the mini-hydro model is USD1,400 and I will give you one-hour free for assistance in putting your input data into the model (via telephone or email or FB messenger).

 

Your energy technology selection expert.

Email me for more details and how to order off-line:

energydataexpert@gmail.com

Visit our on-line digital store to order on-line

www.energydataexpert.com

www.energytechnologyexpert.com

 

Sample Project Finance Model

November 28th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in financial models

Sample Project Finance Model

Here is a sample project finance model for a biomass thermal power plant that can be customized for your specific need: (Advanced regulator model)

adv-biomass-direct-combustion-model4-demo9

The same model above is also presented in just one worksheet (tab) so you would be able to understand better the structure of a project finance model: (OMT Energy Enterprises model)

omt-biomass-direct-combustion-model4-demo9

A sample non-thermal power plant (no fuel GHV and no fuel cost) can also be downloaded:

adv-mini-hydro-model3-demo5

A sample liquid fossil thermal power plant (with fuel GHV, fuel density and fuel cost) is also available:

adv-diesel-genset-model3-demo5

Email me if you need customization:

energydataexpert@gmail.com

You may order on-line any project finance model of any renewable, conventional, fossil, nuclear, combined heat and power, and energy storage power generation technologies by visiting this website:

www.energydataexpert.com

Or please visit this blog for any power generation technology article:

www.energytechnologyexpert.com

Regards,

The energy technology expert and financial modeling expert

=======

The One Stop Place for All Power Generation Technology Summaries and Financial Models

This is the one single place to research all your power generation and fuel cycle technology briefs (write-ups) and sample project finance models so that in due time, you will be an energy technology and power generation expert capable of writing feasibility studies backed up by economic and financial analysis to recommend the best technology and fuel solution to management.

Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Technologies – a mini-lecture series with power point presentation and excel project finance models

Your energy technology selection expert is beginning a lecture series on power generation and fuel cycle technologies. This will involve a discussion on the principles of the technology, its history, capital and operating costs, benefits and risks.

Objectives

1) To provide the participants a basic understanding of the following commercially available:

– fuel cycle technologies

– power generation technologies, and

– energy storage technologies

2) To know the basic principles, costs, environmental impact, risks and applicability of each of these technologies, and

3) To present the technology roadmap of each of these technologies to guide us in the near term (next 20 years – up to 2020) and in the long term (next 50 years – up to 2050)

The Past

o Introduction – what-is-electricity

o How is Electricity Generated – generation-of-electricity

o History of Power Generation – history-of-power-generation

o The Complete Electric Power System (base load, intermediate & peaking loads)

The Present

o Commercially Available Fuel Technologies, Power Generation Technologies, and Energy Storage Technologies –

commercially-available-fuel-cycle-technologies

o Primary Energy Sources – primary-energy-sources

o Fuel Properties – fuel-properties

o For the commercially available technologies:

– Basic Principles

– Costs

– Environmental Impact

– Associated Risks

– Applicability

COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES:

The Future

o The Technology Roadmap: Vision, Portfolio, Approach, Global Drivers of Change, Cost of Not Yet Commercially Available Tech –

technology-roadmap

o The Near Term Fuel, Power Generation, and Energy Storage Technologies (up to 2020) –

near-term-energy-sources

o The Long Fuel, Power Generation, and Energy Storage Technologies (up to 2050) –

long-term-energy-sources

=========

The project finance models of the power generation technology selection expert are based on one model template; hence, the results are unique for the technology’s capital and operating costs, fuel properties and costs, energy conversion efficiency or heat rate, and energy resource availability and reliability.

The financial models are denominated in Philippine Pesos (PhP 47.00 = USD). You can easily convert to your own local currency by changing the base and forward fixed exchange rate (e.g. XXX 100.00 = USD, USD 1.00 = USD) and do a global replacement of all PhP with XXX currency.

SAMPLE PROJECT FINANCE MODELS:

RENEWABLE ENERGY

adv-biomass-cogeneration-model3-demo5 – process heat (steam) and power

adv-biomass-direct-combustion-model3-demo5 – bagasse, rice husk or wood waste fired boiler steam turbine generator

adv-biomass-gasification-model3-demo5 – gasification (thermal conversion in high temperature without oxygen or air, pyrolysis)

adv-biomass-igcc-model3-demo5 – integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology

adv-biomass-wte-model3-demo5 – waste-to-energy (WTE) technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and treatment

adv-biomass-wte-model3-pyrolysis-demo5 – waste-to-energy (WTE) pyrolysis technology

adv-mini-hydro-model3-demo5 – run-of-river (mini-hydro) power plant

adv-concentrating-solar-power-csp-model3-demo5 – concentrating solar power (CSP) 400 MW

adv-solar-pv-1-mw-model3-demo5 – solar PV technology 1 MW Chinese

adv-solar-pv-25-mw-model3-demo5 – solar PV technology 25 MW European and Non-Chinese (Korean, Japanese, US)

adv-wind-onshore-model3-demo5 – includes 81 wind turbine power curves from onshore WTG manufacturers

adv-wind-offshore-model3-demo5 – includes 81 wind turbine power curves from  offshore WTG manufacturers

adv-ocean-thermal-model3_10-mw-demo5 – ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology 10 MW

adv-ocean-thermal-model3_50-mw-demo5 – ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology 50 MW

CONVENTIONAL, FOSSIL AND NUCLEAR ENERGY

adv-geo-thermal-model3-demo5 – geothermal power plant  100 MW

adv-large-hydro-model3-demo5 – large hydro power plant 500 MW

adv-coal-fired-cfb-thermal-model3_50-mw-demo5 – subcritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology 50 MW

adv-coal-fired-cfb-thermal-model3_135-mw-demo5– subcritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology 135 MW

adv-coal-fired-pc-subcritical-thermal-model3-demo5– subcritical pulverized coal (PC) technology 400 MW

adv-coal-fired-pc-supercritical-thermal-model3-demo5 – supercritical pulverized coal (PC) technology 500 MW

adv-coal-fired-pc-ultrasupercritical-thermal-model3-demo5 – ultrasupercritical pulverized coal (PC) technology 650 MW

adv-diesel-genset-model3-demo5 – diesel-fueled genset (compression ignition engine) technology 50 MW

adv-fuel-oil-genset-model3-demo5 – fuel oil (bunker oil) fired genset (compression ignition engine) technology 100 MW

adv-fuel-oil-thermal-model3-demo5 – fuel oil (bunker oil) fired oil thermal technology 600 MW

adv-natgas-combined-cycle-model3-demo5 – natural gas combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) 500 MW

adv-natgas-simple-cycle-model3-demo5 – natural gas simple cycle (open cycle) gas turbine (OCGT) 70 MW

adv-natgas-thermal-model3-demo5 – natural gas thermal 200 MW

adv-petcoke-fired-pc-subcritical-thermal-model3-demo5– petroleum coke (petcoke) fired subcritical thermal 220 MW

adv-nuclear-phwr-model3-demo5 – nuclear (uranium) pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) technology 1330 MW

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY BOILER (DIESEL genset; GASOLINE genset; PROPANE, LPG or NATURAL GAS simple cycle)

adv-coal-fired-cfb-thermal-model3_50-mw-chp-demo5 – combined heat and power (CHP)  circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology 50 MW

adv-diesel-genset-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5– diesel genset (diesel, gas oil) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW

adv-fuel-oil-genset-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – fuel oil (bunker) genset and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW

adv-gasoline-genset-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – gasoline genset (gasoline, land fill gas) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW

adv-propane-simple-cycle-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5 – simple cycle GT (propane) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW (e.g. Capstone)

adv-simple-cycle-and-waste-heat-boiler-model3-demo5– simple cycle GT (natural gas, land fill gas, LPG) and waste heat recovery boiler 3 MW (e.g. Capstone)

=========

Should you need the actual models (not demo) that could be revised for your own needs (additional revenue streams, additional expense accounts, additional balance sheet accounts, etc.), you may:

Email me:

energydataexpert@gmail.com

Visit me:

www.energydataexpert.com

www.energytechnologyexpert.com

THANK YOU

=======

 

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) – Solar Thermal Power Generation Technology Model

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) – Solar Thermal Power Generation Technology Model

Your energy technology selection expert has developed a CSP Project Finance Model for use by CSP project developers.

It can help you prepare the feasibility study and design or optimize the various options to give you the lowest Levelized cost of energy (LCOE).

Given inputs on installed unit capacity, number of units, capacity factor, all-in capital cost $/kW, fixed O&M cost $/kW/year and variable O&M cost $/MWh, you can calibrate the model to meet your annual generation and determine first year tariff, short-run marginal running cost SRMC and long-run marginal running cost LRMC (also known as LCOE). More »

Coal Thermal and Clean-Coal Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

April 17th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in power generation

Coal Thermal and Clean-Coal Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

This is the latest project finance model template (financials tab or worksheet) that your energy technology selection expert has developed for the geothermal power generation technology using energy stored on the earth’s crust. Familiarize with the template and if interested, get the full unlocked version for your immediate use. I can also provide data input service or customize further the model.

Solid fossil fuel such as coal (lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, etc.) are available in large quantities in many places around the world and will provide a cheap source of fuel to generated power in base-load coal-fired power plants using circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and the newer pulverized coal (PC) technologies such as super-critical and ultra-super-critical technologies.

More »

Reciprocating (Piston) Engine Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

Reciprocating (Piston) Engine Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

This is the latest project finance model template (financials tab or worksheet) that your energy technology selection expert has developed for reciprocating (piston) engine power generation technology. Familiarize with the template and if interested, get the full unlocked version for your immediate use. I can also provide data input service or customize further the model.

Reciprocating diesel engine (using diesel oil and bunker fuel oil) is based on the compression ignition (CI) thermodynamic cycle while the reciprocating gasoline engine (using gasoline, petrol and natural gas) is based on the spark ignition (SI) thermodynamic cycle.

More »

Hydro Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

April 17th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in hydro power

Hydro Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

This is the latest project finance model template (financials tab or worksheet) that your energy technology selection expert has developed for hydro electric power. Familiarize with the template and if interested, get the full unlocked version for your immediate use. I can also provide data input service or customize further the model.

More »

Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

April 17th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in solar PV power

Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

This is the latest project finance model template (financials tab or worksheet) that your energy technology selection expert has developed solar PV energy. Familiarize with the template and if interested, get the full unlocked version for your immediate use. I can also provide data input service or customize further the model.

Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) farms are the present darling in the RE industry. It is the fastest RE technology that can be built in the shortest possible time, and with declining cost of producing and maintaining solar PV panels, a large number of project developers have ventured into solar.

More »

Wind Energy Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

April 17th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in wind energy and power

Wind Energy Project Finance Model Template (Financials Tab) – free demo

This is the latest project finance model template (financials tab or worksheet) that your energy technology selection expert has developed for on-shore and off-shore wind energy farm (non-thermal renewable energy). Familiarize with the template and if interested, get the full unlocked version for your immediate use. I can also provide data input service or customize further the model.

More »

Integrated Wind Prospecting, Wind Resource Assessment, Annual Power Generation and Capacity Factor, and Wind Project Finance Model with Monte Carlo Simulation

March 29th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in wind energy and power

Integrated Wind Prospecting, Wind Resource Assessment, Annual Power Generation and Capacity Factor, and Wind Project Finance Model with Monte Carlo Simulation

Yes, your energy technology expert has done it again.

Version 3 has been released that integrates all the steps needed in fully developing your wind energy project.

It combines the data entry of the wind velocity profile of the prospective wind farm site (from wind mast anemometer monitoring or from 3-TIER, NREL wind profile database), interpolation of daily and hourly wind speed (up to 15-minute pulse if needed by the TRANSCO / GRID operator), look-up tables for the various wind turbine generator manufacturers, calculation of annual power generation and capacity factor, overnight capital cost of wind turbine and its fixed and variable O&M costs, and project finance modeling (with option for both deterministic and stochastic modeling using Monte Carlo Simulation). More »

Economic Model (Project Finance Model) for a CFB Power Plant (coal, biomass)

February 24th, 2016 No Comments   Posted in financial models

Economic Model (Project Finance Model) for a CFB Power Plant (coal, biomass)

I am pleased to announce the availability of a new project finance model for a CFB power plant that can burn both coal and biomass.

The model accepts the following information: More »

Integrated Wind Prospecting, Wind Resource Assessment, Annual Power Generation and Capacity Factor, and Wind Project Finance Model with Monte Carlo Simulation (Ver. 4)

February 11th, 2015 No Comments   Posted in wind energy and power

Integrated Wind Prospecting, Wind Resource Assessment, Annual Power Generation and Capacity Factor, and Wind Project Finance Model with Monte Carlo Simulation (Ver. 4)

Yes, your energy technology expert has done it again.

Version 4 has been released that integrates all the steps needed in fully developing your wind energy project.

It combines the data entry of the wind velocity profile of the prospective wind farm site (from wind mast anemometer monitoring or from 3-TIER, NREL wind profile database), interpolation of daily and hourly wind speed (even up to 15-minute pulse if needed by the TRANSCO / GRID operator), look-up tables for the various wind turbine generator manufacturers, calculation of annual power generation and capacity factor, overnight capital cost of wind turbine and its fixed and variable O&M costs, and project finance modeling (deterministic with option for both deterministic and stochastic modeling using Monte Carlo Simulation). More »

Economics of a 135 MW (net) coal-fired Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Thermal Power Plant

May 14th, 2014 No Comments   Posted in clean coal technologies

Economics of a 135 MW (net) coal-fired Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Thermal Power Plant

Following is an annual construction model (3 years or 36 months) and a 25-year operating project finance model (30% equity, 70% debt) with a 16% p.a. equity IRR and coal cost of US$85 per tonne (metric ton or MT) with a gross heating value (GHV) of 10,000 Btu/lb,  36 months construction, 25 years commercial operation) using average annual drawdown (1/3 in year 1, 1/3 in year 2, 1/3 in year 3 construction drawdown). The CFB has an overall fuel to electricity thermal efficiency of 37.39% (92.5% boiler efficiency, 42.0% steam turbine efficiency and 96.25% mechanical clutch & electric generator efficiency). The results are as follows: More »

Cogeneration (CHP) Biomass Power Project Finance Model

May 8th, 2014 2 Comments   Posted in cogeneration

Cogeneration (CHP) Biomass Power Project Finance Model

A new and powerful tool for analysing the technical and economic viability of cogeneration (combined heat & power) using biomass fuel such as wood chips, agri-wastes, bagasse, wood-wastes is now available in the market to calculate your feed-in-tariff (FIT) rates or IRR and payback periods.

Your technology expert is pleased to announce the availability of a new cogeneration (combined heat & power or CHP) biomass power project finance model.

Be the first to use this powerful tool in analysing your biomass resource potential and convert it to useful energy and power. More »

Mini-Hydro Model with CDM

October 11th, 2013 1 Comment   Posted in mini hydro

Mini-Hydro Model with CDM

Here is a sample of a project finance model for a mini-hydro power plant using the Clean Development Mechanism principles, i.e. no escalation, no taxes and government imposts and around 15% p.a. return on investment, and 100% owners’ equity only (no leveraging with cheap debt).

The CDM analyses the economics purely on the technical and economic performance of the technology (capacity, reliability, availability, efficiency, capital cost, and operating & maintenance costs). More »

Latest Solar PV-Diesel Hybrid and Wind-Diesel Hybrid Models

April 23rd, 2012 1 Comment   Posted in renewable energy

Latest Solar PV-Diesel Hybrid and Wind-Diesel Hybrid Models

Your energy technology expert added new top-of-the-line project finance models for evaluation the economics (equity and project IRR, payback period and NPV) and first year tariff (feed-in-tariff) for renewable-diesel hybrid systems such as that for wind and solar PV.

More »

Wind-Diesel Hybrid Project Finance Model with Wind Resource Assessment – now available

March 17th, 2012 1 Comment   Posted in renewable energy

Wind-Diesel Hybrid Project finance Model with Wind Resource Assessment – now available

Analyzing the economics of a wind-diesel hybrid power plant has now become simple with the new wind-diesel project finance model having a wind energy resource simulator. Avoid the time consuming hassle by purchasing this latest product offering from your energy technology selection expert. More »

Template for Levelized Cost of Energy, Project Finance Model and Power Plant Emission Calculation

November 30th, 2010 7 Comments   Posted in project finance models

Template for Levelized Cost of Energy, Project Finance Model and Power Plant Emission Calculation

This December 2010, your energy technology selection and business development consultant/expert is providing his avid readers and fans a very good bargain.

Marcial is going to offer low cost templates for various power generation technologies to determine electricity tariff and for renewable energy the feed-in tariff.

He will also offer power plant emission calculation models which the user may modify given the actual fuel properties and chemical analysis.

So hurry up. This is a limited offer. Email me right now to avail of the huge discount on the template models that are user friendly and could be user modified. More »

How to Lower Power Plant Emissions – some suggestions

November 18th, 2010 2 Comments   Posted in energy & climate change

How to Lower Power Plant Emissions – some suggestions

Here are my simple suggestions on how to lower power plant emissions and address global warming and climate change issues.

—————-

Hi Jeff,

I am not an environmental scientist, but this I can say.

As long as your liquid fuel has lower than 1% Sulfur by weight, you will not exceed SO2 concentration (in volume % or parts per million by volume or as mg/Nm3 or milligram per normal cubic meter) required by the EPA (usually given in ppm and mg/Nm3 for both old and new power plants).

Having sufficient excess air (3-15% or average of 9%) will help eliminate unburnt fuel emission such as CO (carbon monoxide) and THC (total hydro carbon) as well as unburnt carbon (C) particles.

You also need to lower impurities such as ash to reduce total suspended solids (TSP) emissions (ash and unburnt carbon fuel).

To lower NOx emissions, the firing of oil must be done in stages so that the flame is not too hot that it will dissociate nitrogen (N2) in the air into oxides of nitrogen (NOx) that contributes to acid rain together with oxides of sulfur (SOx).

But this days, you have to address global warming and climate change issues by lowering your carbon (C) or as carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.  This means keeping the fuel to electricity conversion efficiency (thermal efficiency) as high as possible, which is typically around 33-36% for oil thermal power plants based on the steam Rankin cycle.  To lower the carbon footprint, you need to move away from the simple steam Rankin cycle to combined cycles (CCGT) to raise efficiency to over 54-59%, almost double, thus reducing the carbon footprint by almost half.

Hope I was of help,

Marcial

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For the readers who would want to design a power plant that addresses global warming and climate change issues, energy efficiency considerations,  cost of power plant and resulting electricity tariff, please email me your concerns as I may provide you a good feasibility study that addresses all the above issues.

Cheers,

Marcial, your energy technology expert (for conventional, nuclear and renewable energy power generation).

How to make a top-of-the-line project finance model for wind energy

October 7th, 2010 1 Comment   Posted in project finance modeling

How to make a top-of-the-line project finance model for wind energy

After many years of financial modeling experience, including working for international development agencies, your favorite energy technology selection and business development consultant is providing his audience with a template for making state-of-the-art project finance model for individual wind turbines and wind farms in hybrid with fossil power generation (peak load and base load units in order to allow the massive penetration of wind energy into the grid without undermining the grid’s  stability, voltage and frequency).

Here is the sample template model showing the main topics and a few columns of the model.  The model is broken down into the following sections: More »

Feed-in Tariff Models for Renewable Energy – biomass, cogen, mini-hydro, wind, solar and ocean thermal (OTEC)

April 29th, 2010 6 Comments   Posted in feed-in tariff

Feed-in Tariff Models for Renewable Energy – biomass, cogen, mini-hydro, wind, solar and ocean thermal (OTEC)

Renewable energy feed-in tariffs for biomass, biomass cogen, mini-hydro or run-of-river hydro, wind, solar PV and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) have been calculated using a project finance model prepared for the National Renewable Energy Board (NREB) by Marcial Ocampo – your favorite energy technology expert.

Using standard assumptions of supplier FOB, the all-in capital cost is calculated.  The summary sheet of the model then summarizes the assumptions and results.

Marcial Ocampo

Energy & Business Development Consultant

More »